Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Lactuca muralis

wall lettuce

synonym: Cicerbita, Mycelis, Prenanthes, muralis

organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite
root film Ceratocystidaceae Thielaviopsis thielavioides
leaf leaf spot Capnodiales Ramularia mulgedii
leaf scale Aleyrodidae Aleyrodes proletella
flower vagrant Noctuidae Hecatera bicolorata
flower vagrant Noctuidae Hecatera dysodea
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Melanchra persicariae
stem gall Cecidomyiidae Lasioptera buhri
flower vagrant Noctuidae Cucullia lactucae
leaf vagrant Pterophoridae Pselnophorus heterodactyla
leaf down Erysiphales Podosphaera xanthii
leaf miner Curculionidae Orthochaetes setiger
leaf down Erysiphales Golovinomyces bolayi
leaf scale Aleyrodidae Aleyrodes lonicerae
stem miner Agromyzidae Ophiomyia heringi
leaf borer Agromyzidae Ophiomyia beckeri
leaf borer Agromyzidae Ophiomyia cunctata
leaf down Erysiphales Golovinomyces cichoracearum
leaf down Peronosporales Bremia lactucae
leaf gall Triozidae Trioza foersteri
leaf miner Agromyzidae Chromatomyia syngenesiae
leaf miner Agromyzidae Liriomyza puella
leaf miner Agromyzidae Liriomyza sonchi
leaf miner Agromyzidae Liriomyza strigata
leaf miner Agromyzidae Ophiomyia pulicaria
leaf miner Agromyzidae Phytomyza marginella
leaf miner Curculionidae Orthochaetes insignis
leaf miner doubtful Depressariidae Agonopterix propinquella
leaf miner Tephritidae Trypeta immaculata
leaf pustule Chytridiales Synchytrium aureum
leaf pustule aecia Pucciniales Puccinia opizii
leaf pustule aecia uredinia telia Pucciniales Puccinia chondrillae
leaf pustule uredinia telia Pucciniales Coleosporium sonchi
root vagrant summer generation Aphididae Pemphigus bursarius
stem vagrant Aphididae Uroleucon murale


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot: discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


Last modified 27.viii.2022