Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Lactuca sativa

garden lettuce

synonym: Lactuca dregeana

organparasitic modestagenotetaxonomic groupparasite
leafvagrantAcanthosomatidaeElasmucha grisea
leafvagrantRhopalidaeLiorhyssus hyalinus
leafvagrantadultCurculionidaeOtiorhynchus meridionalis
leafvagrantNoctuidaeThysanoplusia orichalcea
leafvagrantNoctuidaeOchropleura plecta
leafvagrantNoctuidaeNoctua pronuba
leafvagrantNoctuidaeLacanobia suasa
flowervagrantNoctuidaeHecatera dysodea
leafvagrantNoctuidaeMamestra brassicae
leafvagrantNoctuidaeCharanyca ferruginea
leafvagrantNoctuidaePhlogophora meticulosa
leafvagrantErebidaeNodaria nodosalis
leafvagrantNoctuidaeAutographa gamma
flowervagrantNoctuidaeCucullia lactucae
flowervagrantNoctuidaeCucullia lucifuga
flowervagrantdoubtfulNoctuidaeCucullia umbratica
leafvagrantNoctuidaeHelicoverpa armigera
leafvagrantdoubtfulBrahmaeidaeLemonia philopalus
leafvagrantdoubtfulGeometridaeIdaea camparia
leafvagrantTingidaeGaleatus scrophicus
leafvagrantCicadellidaeZyginidia sohrab
leafvagrantCicadellidaeEupteryx atropunctata
leafvagrantCicadellidaeMacrosteles cristatus
flowervagrantPterophoridaeCrombrugghia distans
flowerborerTortricidaeEucosma conterminana
fruitvagrantTortricidaeAethes smeathmanniana
leafdownErysiphalesGolovinomyces bolayi
leafscaleAleyrodidaeAleyrodes proletella
leafscaleAleyrodidaeTrialeurodes vaporariorum
leafminerAgromyzidaeChromatomyia horticola
leafvagrantsummer generationAphididaeBrachycaudus helichrysi
leafleaf spotdoubtfulCapnodialesRamularia inaequalis
flowerborerAnthomyiidaeBotanophila gnava
leafvagrantsummer generationAphididaeMyzus persicae
leafvagrantAphididaeAulacorthum solani
systemicvagrantAphididaeProtaphis terricola
flowervagrantAphididaeAcyrthosiphon scariolae
leafvagrantsummer generationAphididaeAphis fabae fabae
leafvagrantsummer generationAphididaeAphis fabae
flowerborerTephritidaeTrupanea amoena
flowergallEriophyidaeAculus lactucae
leafdownErysiphalesGolovinomyces cichoracearum
leafdownPeronosporalesBremia lactucae
leafminerAgromyzidaeChromatomyia syngenesiae
leafminerAgromyzidaeLiriomyza huidobrensis
leafminerAgromyzidaeOphiomyia pinguis
leafpustuleaeciaPuccinialesPuccinia opizii
leafpustuleaecia uredinia teliaPuccinialesPuccinia chondrillae
leafpustuleaecia uredinia teliaPuccinialesPuccinia lactucarum
rootgallMeloidogynidaeMeloidogyne hapla
rootvagrantAphididaeTrama caudata
rootvagrantsummer generationAphididaePemphigus bursarius
leafvagrantAphididaeMacrosiphum euphorbiae
leafvagrantsummer generationAphididaeNasonovia ribisnigri
flowervagrantsummer generationAphididaeHyperomyzus lactucae
stemvagrantAphididaeUroleucon cichorii
stemvagrantAphididaeAcyrthosiphon lactucae
leafvagrantAphididaeMyzus cymbalariae
stemvagrantAphididaeUroleucon sonchi


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


Last modified 14.i.2022