Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Lactuca sativa

garden lettuce

synonym: Lactuca dregeana

organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite
root borer Psilidae Chamaepsila nigricornis
leaf vagrant adult Curculionidae Otiorhynchus cribricollis
leaf hidden Thripidae Thrips angusticeps
flower hidden Thripidae Frankliniella occidentalis
flower predator Aeolothripidae Aeolothrips intermedius
leaf vagrant Tetranychidae Bryobia cagani
root vagrant Hepialidae Hepialus humuli
stem pustule Sclerotiniaceae Sclerotinia minor
stem pustule Sclerotiniaceae Sclerotinia trifoliorum
systemic pustule Sclerotiniaceae Sclerotinia sclerotiorum
leaf leaf spot Mycosphaerellaceae Septoria lactucae
leaf leaf spot Pleosporales Mycocentrospora acerina
leaf vagrant Acanthosomatidae Elasmucha grisea
leaf vagrant Rhopalidae Liorhyssus hyalinus
leaf vagrant adult Curculionidae Otiorhynchus meridionalis
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Thysanoplusia orichalcea
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Ochropleura plecta
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Noctua pronuba
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Lacanobia suasa
flower vagrant Noctuidae Hecatera dysodea
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Mamestra brassicae
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Charanyca ferruginea
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Phlogophora meticulosa
leaf vagrant Erebidae Nodaria nodosalis
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Autographa gamma
flower vagrant Noctuidae Cucullia lactucae
flower vagrant Noctuidae Cucullia lucifuga
flower vagrant doubtful Noctuidae Cucullia umbratica
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Helicoverpa armigera
leaf vagrant doubtful Brahmaeidae Lemonia philopalus
leaf vagrant doubtful Geometridae Idaea camparia
leaf vagrant Tingidae Galeatus scrophicus
leaf vagrant Cicadellidae Zyginidia sohrab
leaf vagrant Cicadellidae Eupteryx atropunctata
leaf vagrant Cicadellidae Macrosteles cristatus
flower vagrant Pterophoridae Crombrugghia distans
flower borer Tortricidae Eucosma conterminana
fruit vagrant Tortricidae Aethes smeathmanniana
leaf down Erysiphales Golovinomyces bolayi
leaf scale Aleyrodidae Aleyrodes proletella
leaf scale Aleyrodidae Trialeurodes vaporariorum
leaf miner Agromyzidae Chromatomyia horticola
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Brachycaudus helichrysi
leaf leaf spot doubtful Capnodiales Ramularia inaequalis
flower borer Anthomyiidae Botanophila gnava
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Myzus persicae
leaf vagrant Aphididae Aulacorthum solani
systemic vagrant Aphididae Protaphis terricola
flower vagrant Aphididae Acyrthosiphon scariolae
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Aphis fabae fabae
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Aphis fabae
flower borer Tephritidae Trupanea amoena
flower gall Eriophyidae Aculus lactucae
leaf down Erysiphales Golovinomyces cichoracearum
leaf down Peronosporales Bremia lactucae
leaf miner Agromyzidae Chromatomyia syngenesiae
leaf miner Agromyzidae Liriomyza huidobrensis
leaf miner Agromyzidae Ophiomyia pinguis
leaf pustule aecia Pucciniales Puccinia opizii
leaf pustule aecia uredinia telia Pucciniales Puccinia chondrillae
leaf pustule aecia uredinia telia Pucciniales Puccinia lactucarum
root gall Meloidogynidae Meloidogyne hapla
root vagrant Aphididae Trama caudata
root vagrant summer generation Aphididae Pemphigus bursarius
leaf vagrant Aphididae Macrosiphum euphorbiae
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Nasonovia ribisnigri
flower vagrant summer generation Aphididae Hyperomyzus lactucae
stem vagrant Aphididae Uroleucon cichorii
stem vagrant Aphididae Acyrthosiphon lactucae
leaf vagrant Aphididae Myzus cymbalariae
stem vagrant Aphididae Uroleucon sonchi


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot: discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


Last modified 30.xii.2023