Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Lactuca serriola

prickly lettuce

synonym: Lactuca scariola

organparasitic modestagenotetaxonomic groupparasite
flowervagrantNoctuidaeHecatera bicolorata
flowervagrantNoctuidaeHecatera dysodea
flowervagrantNoctuidaeCucullia lactucae
leafvagrantErebidaeSpilosoma lubricipeda
flowergallTephritidaeCampiglossa producta
leafvagrantChrysomelidaeChrysolina graminis
flowergalldoubtfulCecidomyiidaeContarinia salatica
flowerborerTortricidaeEucosma conterminana
leafhiddenTortricidaeClepsis pallidana
flowerborerTortricidaePhalonidia contractana
flowerborerlarvaCurculionidaeGlocianus distinctus
leafscaleAleyrodidaeAleyrodes proletella
leafscaleAleyrodidaeBemisia tabaci
leafscaleAleyrodidaeTrialeurodes vaporariorum
leafminerAgromyzidaeChromatomyia horticola
leafleaf spotdoubtfulCapnodialesRamularia inaequalis
flowerborerAnthomyiidaeBotanophila gnava
leafvagrantTriozidaeBactericera tremblayi
flowervagrantAphididaeAcyrthosiphon scariolae
leafvagrantsummer generationAphididaeAphis fabae fabae
stemvagrantAphididaeUroleucon sonchi
systemicborerAnguinidaeDitylenchus dipsaci
flowerborerTephritidaeEnsina sonchi
flowerborerTephritidaeTrupanea amoena
flowergallEriophyidaeAculus lactucae
leafborerAgromyzidaeOphiomyia beckeri
leafdownErysiphalesGolovinomyces cichoracearum
leafdownErysiphalesPodosphaera xanthii
leafdownPeronosporalesBremia lactucae
leafminerAgromyzidaeChromatomyia syngenesiae
leafminerAgromyzidaeLiriomyza bryoniae
leafminerAgromyzidaeLiriomyza lesinensis
leafminerAgromyzidaeLiriomyza scorzonerae
leafminerAgromyzidaeLiriomyza serriolae
leafminerAgromyzidaeLiriomyza sonchi
leafminerAgromyzidaeLiriomyza strigata
leafminerAgromyzidaeLiriomyza trifolii
leafminerAgromyzidaeOphiomyia pulicaria
leafminerAgromyzidaePhytomyza penicilla
leafpustuleaeciaPuccinialesPuccinia opizii
leafpustuleaecia uredinia teliaPuccinialesPuccinia chondrillae
leafpustuleaecia uredinia teliaPuccinialesPuccinia lactucarum
leafvagrantsummer generationAphididaeNasonovia ribisnigri
stemgallAsterolecaniidaePlanchonia arabidis
stemvagrantAphididaeAcyrthosiphon lactucae
flowervagrantsummer generationrarelyAphididaeHyperomyzus lactucae
leafvagrantAphididaeMacrosiphum euphorbiae
rootvagrantsummer generationAphididaePemphigus bursarius


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


Last modified 17.ix.2021