Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Lactuca serriola

prickly lettuce

synonym: Lactuca scariola

organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite
root scale Pseudococcidae Heliococcus radicicola
root scale Pseudococcidae Phenacoccus pumilus
stem scale Diaspididae Aonidiella aurantii
root gall Meloidogynidae Meloidogyne javanica
flower vagrant Noctuidae Haemerosia vassilininei
stem vagrant Aphididae Uroleucon bielawskii
leaf leaf spot Mycosphaerellaceae Septoria lactucae
leaf leaf spot Mycosphaerellaceae Passalora scariolae
fruit vagrant Lygaeidae Nysius cymoides
fruit vagrant Lygaeidae Nysius cymoides
leaf vagrant Rhopalidae Liorhyssus hyalinus
leaf down Erysiphales Leveillula taurica
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Haemerosia renalis
flower vagrant Noctuidae Hecatera bicolorata
flower vagrant Noctuidae Hecatera dysodea
flower vagrant Noctuidae Cucullia lactucae
leaf vagrant Erebidae Spilosoma lubricipeda
flower gall Tephritidae Campiglossa producta
leaf vagrant Chrysomelidae Chrysolina graminis
flower gall doubtful Cecidomyiidae Contarinia salatica
flower borer Tortricidae Eucosma conterminana
leaf hidden Tortricidae Clepsis pallidana
flower borer Tortricidae Phalonidia contractana
flower borer larva Curculionidae Glocianus distinctus
leaf scale Aleyrodidae Aleyrodes proletella
leaf scale Aleyrodidae Bemisia tabaci
leaf scale Aleyrodidae Trialeurodes vaporariorum
leaf miner Agromyzidae Chromatomyia horticola
leaf leaf spot doubtful Capnodiales Ramularia inaequalis
flower borer Anthomyiidae Botanophila gnava
leaf vagrant Triozidae Bactericera tremblayi
flower vagrant Aphididae Acyrthosiphon scariolae
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Aphis fabae fabae
stem vagrant Aphididae Uroleucon sonchi
systemic borer Anguinidae Ditylenchus dipsaci
flower borer Tephritidae Ensina sonchi
flower borer Tephritidae Trupanea amoena
flower gall Eriophyidae Aculus lactucae
leaf borer Agromyzidae Ophiomyia beckeri
leaf down Erysiphales Golovinomyces cichoracearum
leaf down Erysiphales Podosphaera xanthii
leaf down Peronosporales Bremia lactucae
leaf miner Agromyzidae Chromatomyia syngenesiae
leaf miner Agromyzidae Liriomyza bryoniae
leaf miner Agromyzidae Liriomyza lesinensis
leaf miner Agromyzidae Liriomyza scorzonerae
leaf miner Agromyzidae Liriomyza serriolae
leaf miner Agromyzidae Liriomyza sonchi
leaf miner Agromyzidae Liriomyza strigata
leaf miner Agromyzidae Liriomyza trifolii
leaf miner Agromyzidae Ophiomyia pulicaria
leaf miner Agromyzidae Phytomyza penicilla
leaf pustule aecia Pucciniales Puccinia opizii
leaf pustule aecia uredinia telia Pucciniales Puccinia chondrillae
leaf pustule aecia uredinia telia Pucciniales Puccinia lactucarum
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Nasonovia ribisnigri
stem gall Asterolecaniidae Planchonia arabidis
stem vagrant Aphididae Acyrthosiphon lactucae
flower vagrant summer generation rarely Aphididae Hyperomyzus lactucae
leaf vagrant Aphididae Macrosiphum euphorbiae
root vagrant summer generation Aphididae Pemphigus bursarius


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot: discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


Last modified 21.i.2024