Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Campanula rapunculoides

creeping bellflower

organparasitic modestagenotetaxonomic groupparasite
leafpustuleuredinia teliaPuccinialesColeosporium tussilaginis
flowervagrantErebidaeSchrankia costaestrigalis
flowerborerNitidulidaeAstylogethes substrigosus
flowerborerNitidulidaeAstylogethes corvinus
flowerborerNitidulidaeAstylogethes subrugosus
fruitborerlarvaCurculionidaeCleopomiarus plantarum
fruitborerlarvaCurculionidaeMiarus ajugae
fruitborerCurculionidaeCleopomiarus meridionalis
leafdownErysiphalesGolovinomyces bolayi
leafscaleAleyrodidaeAleyrodes lonicerae
fruitgallCurculionidaeMiarus campanulae
flowerdownPeronosporalesPeronospora corollae
flowergallCecidomyiidaeContarinia campanulae
flowergallEriophyidaeAculus schmardae
leafdownErysiphalesGolovinomyces orontii
leafdownPeronosporalesPeronospora erinicola
leafgallCecidomyiidaeDasineura acuminata
leafminerAgromyzidaeAmauromyza gyrans
leafminerAgromyzidaeLiriomyza strigata
leafminerAgromyzidaePhytomyza rapunculi
leafpustuleuredinia teliaPuccinialesColeosporium campanulae
leafvagrantsummer generationAphididaeAphis fabae
stemgallAsterolecaniidaePlanchonia arabidis
stemminerAgromyzidaeOphiomyia eucodonus
rootgallPlasmodiophoralesSpongospora campanulae
unknowngallCecidomyiidaeDasineura szepligetii
flowervagrantAphididaeUroleucon campanulae
stemgallmainAphididaeUroleucon rapunculoidis
leafvagrantAphididaeUroleucon nigrocampanulae


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


Last modified 26.xi.2021