harebell

synonym: Campanula beckiana, macrorhiza, moravica, polymorpha, praesignis, rotundifolia subsp. polymorpha, tatrae

organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite
fruit borer larva Curculionidae Cleopomiarus graminis
fruit borer larva Curculionidae Miarus ajugae
root collar vagrant Aphididae Dysaphis brevirostris
stem miner Agromyzidae Ophiomyia campanularum
stem miner Agromyzidae Ophiomyia heringi
stem miner Agromyzidae Liriomyza buhri
fruit gall Curculionidae Miarus campanulae
flower down Peronosporales Peronospora corollae
flower gall Cecidomyiidae Contarinia campanulae
flower gall Cecidomyiidae Dasineura campanulae
flower gall main Cecidomyiidae Geocrypta campanulae
flower gall Eriophyidae Aceria chloranthes
flower gall Eriophyidae Aculus schmardae
leaf down Erysiphales Golovinomyces orontii
leaf gall doubtful Cecidomyiidae Dasineura thomasi
leaf gall Eriophyidae Aceria campanulae
leaf miner Agromyzidae Amauromyza gyrans
leaf miner Agromyzidae Liriomyza strigata
leaf miner Agromyzidae Phytomyza campanulae
leaf miner Agromyzidae Phytomyza rapunculi
leaf pustule uredinia telia Pucciniales Coleosporium campanulae
leaf pustule telia Pucciniales Puccinia campanulae
leaf vagrant Aphididae Myzus ascalonicus
root collar vagrant summer generation Aphididae Dysaphis sorbi
flower vagrant Aphididae Uroleucon campanulae
root vagrant Aphididae Aphis psammophila

Organ

the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.

PARASITIC MODE

borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.

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IMPORTANT

The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.

 

mod 29.vi.2019