nettle-leaved bellflower

organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite
fruit borer larva Curculionidae Cleopomiarus distinctus
fruit borer larva Curculionidae Cleopomiarus longirostris
fruit borer larva Curculionidae Miarus ajugae
leaf scale Aleyrodidae Aleyrodes lonicerae
stem miner Agromyzidae Ophiomyia stenophaga
fruit gall Curculionidae Miarus campanulae
flower gall Cecidomyiidae Contarinia campanulae
flower gall Cecidomyiidae Geocrypta campanulae
flower gall Eriophyidae Aculus schmardae
leaf bud gall Cecidomyiidae Dasineura cecconiana
leaf down Erysiphales Golovinomyces orontii
leaf miner Agromyzidae Amauromyza gyrans
leaf miner Agromyzidae Liriomyza strigata
leaf miner Agromyzidae Phytomyza campanulae
leaf miner Agromyzidae Phytomyza rapunculi
leaf pustule uredinia telia Pucciniales Coleosporium campanulae
leaf pustule telia Pucciniales Puccinia campanulae
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Aphis fabae
stem gall Asterolecaniidae Planchonia arabidis
stem gall Cynipidae Aylax trachelii
stem miner Agromyzidae Ophiomyia eucodonus
root collar borer Tephritidae Platyparea discoidea
stem gall Aphididae Uroleucon rapunculoidis
leaf vagrant summer generation rarely Aphididae Cryptomyzus galeopsidis
leaf vagrant Aphididae Uroleucon nigrocampanulae

Organ

the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.

PARASITIC MODE

borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.

IMPORTANT

The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.

 

mod 1.v.2019