organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite
leaf vagrant Tenthredinidae Macrophya alboannulata
leaf vagrant Tenthredinidae Macrophya crassula
leaf vagrant Tenthredinidae Macrophya ribis
leaf vagrant Tenthredinidae Macrophya albicincta
leaf hidden Crambidae Anania coronata
leaf hidden Tortricidae Choristoneura hebenstreitella
flower hidden Thripidae Frankliniella intonsa
leaf vagrant Eriophyidae Phyllocoptes intermedius
leaf gall Aphrophoridae Philaenus spumarius
leaf scale Aleyrodidae Trialeurodes vaporariorum
stem borer Psilidae Chyliza leptogaster
leaf vagrant Aphididae Aphis spiraecola
flower gall Cecidomyiidae Contarinia sambuci
flower gall Cecidomyiidae Placochela nigripes
leaf down Erysiphales Erysiphe sambuci
leaf down rarely Erysiphales Erysiphe vanbruntiana
leaf leaf spot Capnodiales Cercospora depazeoides
leaf gall Eriophyidae Callyntrotus trilobus
leaf gall Eriophyidae Epitrimerus trilobus
leaf miner Agromyzidae Liriomyza amoena
stem vagrant spring generation main Aphididae Aphis sambuci
root gall Meloidogynidae Meloidogyne ardenensis
inquiline doubtful Cecidomyiidae Trotteria ligustri
inquiline Cecidomyiidae Arnoldiola sambuci
stem scale Coccidae Parthenolecanium corni


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


mod 31.iii.2020