Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Lonicera caerulea

organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite
leaf gall Unknown code! Aphididae Prociphilus xylostei
leaf vagrant Geometridae Apeira syringaria
leaf leaf spot Venturiales Lasiobotrys lonicerae
leaf vagrant Nymphalidae Euphydryas intermedia
leaf vagrant Sphingidae Hemaris fuciformis
stem borer Buprestidae Agrilus cyanescens
fruit borer Tephritidae Rhagoletis flavicincta
leaf vagrant doubtful Cimbicidae Abia mutica
leaf hidden Ypsolophidae Ypsolopha falcella
leaf hidden doubtful Ypsolophidae Ypsolopha dentella
leaf vagrant Ypsolophidae Ypsolopha nemorella
leaf gall spring generation Aphididae Rhopalomyzus lonicerae
stem gall Alucitidae Pterotopteryx dodecadactyla
stem borer Sesiidae Synanthedon soffneri
flower gall Cecidomyiidae Contarinia lonicerearum
leaf down Erysiphales Erysiphe lonicerae var. lonicerae
leaf down Erysiphales Erysiphe magnusii
leaf gall Cecidomyiidae Contarinia lonicerae
leaf gall Cecidomyiidae Dasineura excavans
leaf gall Eriophyidae Aculus xylostei
leaf miner Agromyzidae Aulagromyza hendeliana
leaf miner Agromyzidae Chromatomyia alpigenae
leaf miner Agromyzidae Chromatomyia aprilina
leaf miner Agromyzidae Chromatomyia isicae
leaf miner Gracillariidae Phyllonorycter emberizaepenella
leaf pustule aecia Pucciniales Puccinia festucae
stem gall Tenthredinidae Hoplocampoides xylostei


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot: discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


Last modified 29.i.2023