Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Knautia arvensis

field scabious

organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite
leaf vagrant adult Curculionidae Romualdius scaber
flower hidden Thripidae Taeniothrips picipes
flower hidden Thripidae Tenothrips discolor
flower hidden Thripidae Thrips flavus
flower hidden Phlaeothripidae Haplothrips setiger
flower hidden Phlaeothripidae Haplothrips dianthinus
root vagrant larva Curculionidae Romualdius scaber
leaf leaf spot Mycosphaerellaceae Septoria scabiosicola
leaf predator Miridae Deraeocoris flavilinea
leaf vagrant Miridae Placochilus seladonicus
leaf hidden doubtful Gelechiidae Dichomeris limosellus
stem borer Cerambycidae Agapanthia violacea
stem borer Cerambycidae Agapanthia intermedia
stem borer Cerambycidae Agapanthia suturalis
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Mamestra brassicae
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Heliothis ononis
leaf vagrant doubtful Zygaenidae Zygaena lonicerae
leaf vagrant Erebidae Phragmatobia fuliginosa
flower vagrant Geometridae Eupithecia centaureata
flower vagrant Geometridae Eupithecia satyrata
flower vagrant Geometridae Eupithecia subumbrata
leaf vagrant Nymphalidae Euphydryas aurinia
leaf vagrant Nymphalidae Euphydryas desfontainii
leaf vagrant Sphingidae Hemaris tityus
leaf vagrant Sphingidae Hemaris fuciformis
unknown unknown Pyralidae Epischnia prodromella
flower hidden Phlaeothripidae Haplothrips distinguendus
leaf vagrant Chrysomelidae Galeruca pomonae
leaf vagrant Tenthredinidae Tenthredo schaefferi
leaf vagrant Tenthredinidae Macrophya recognata
leaf vagrant Cimbicidae Abia nitens
leaf vagrant Tenthredinidae Macrophya erythrocnema
leaf vagrant Cimbicidae Abia candens
root scale Pseudococcidae Atrococcus cracens
flower hidden Thripidae Thrips atratus
root borer Tortricidae Endothenia oblongana
flower borer Tortricidae Cochylis flaviciliana
root collar borer Tortricidae Selenodes karelica
root borer Tortricidae Agapeta zoegana
root borer Tortricidae Aethes hartmanniana
leaf vagrant Eriophyidae Epitrimerus knautiae
flower borer Pterophoridae Stenoptilia bipunctidactyla
flower borer younger larva Adelidae Nemophora metallica
stem miner Agromyzidae Ophiomyia longilingua
systemic borer Anguinidae Ditylenchus dipsaci
flower down Peronosporales Peronospora violacea
flower gall Cecidomyiidae Contarinia dipsacearum
flower gall Microbotryales Microbotryum flosculorum
flower gall Microbotryales Microbotryum scabiosae
flower vagrant spring generation Aphididae Aphis confusa
leaf bud gall Cecidomyiidae Jaapiella knautiae
leaf bud gall Eriophyidae Aceria squalida
leaf down Erysiphales Erysiphe knautiae
leaf down Erysiphales Podosphaera dipsacacearum
leaf down Peronosporales Peronospora knautiae
leaf leaf spot Capnodiales Ramularia tricherae
leaf miner Agromyzidae Agromyza woerzi
leaf miner Agromyzidae Aulagromyza similis
leaf miner Agromyzidae Chromatomyia ramosa
leaf miner Agromyzidae Chromatomyia scabiosarum
leaf miner Agromyzidae Chromatomyia succisae
leaf miner Agromyzidae Liriomyza strigata
leaf miner doubtful Buprestidae Trachys subglaber
leaf miner Buprestidae Trachys troglodytes
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Aphis confusa
stem gall Asterolecaniidae Planchonia arabidis
leaf vagrant Aphididae Aulacorthum knautiae
leaf vagrant Aphididae Aulacorthum sedens
leaf vagrant Aphididae Ovatomyzus boraginacearum
leaf vagrant Aphididae Macrosiphum knautiae
root collar vagrant rarely Aphididae Aphis thomasi
stem vagrant summer generation Aphididae Macrosiphum rosae


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot: discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


Last modified 29.xi.2023