Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Arbutus unedo

strawberry tree

organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite
unknown unknown Curculionidae Pseudomeira silvanaedicata
unknown unknown Phlaeothripidae Haplothrips flavitibia
leaf vagrant Tenuipalpidae Tenuipalpus arbuti
leaf scale Coccidae Ceroplastes floridensis
stem scale Coccidae Saissetia oleae
leaf leaf spot Phyllostictaceae Phyllosticta arbuti
leaf leaf spot Mycosphaerellaceae Ruptoseptoria unedonis
leaf vagrant Pentatomidae Rhaphigaster nebulosa
leaf vagrant Cicadellidae Placotettix taeniatifrons
leaf vagrant Coreidae Gonocerus insidiator
leaf vagrant doubtful Coreidae Plinachtus imitator
leaf hidden doubtful Crambidae Palpita vitrealis
leaf vagrant Limacodidae Hoyosia codeti
scale Diaspididae Melanaspis inopinata
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Orthosia cerasi
leaf vagrant Erebidae Euproctis chrysorrhoea
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Orthosia miniosa
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Ammopolia witzenmanni
leaf vagrant Erebidae Lymantria dispar
leaf vagrant Lasiocampidae Malacosoma neustria
leaf vagrant Erebidae Orgyia antiqua
leaf vagrant Geometridae Menophra abruptaria
leaf vagrant Erebidae Orgyia trigotephras
leaf vagrant Erebidae Ocneria rubea
leaf vagrant Erebidae Euproctis chrysorrhoea
flower borer Geometridae Eupithecia unedonata
leaf vagrant Lycaenidae Celastrina argiolus
leaf vagrant Geometridae Cyclophora puppillaria
leaf vagrant Lycaenidae Callophrys avis
leaf vagrant Nymphalidae Charaxes jasius
leaf vagrant Cicadellidae Synophropsis lauri
flower hidden Thripidae Taeniothrips arbuti
leaf vagrant Thripidae Drepanothrips reuteri
leaf vagrant Thripidae Scirtothrips inermis
leaf hidden Peleopodidae Carcina quercana
unknown unknown Tortricidae Argyroploce unedana
stem borer Tortricidae Pammene purpureana
stem scale Diaspididae Diaspidiotus bavaricus
leaf vagrant Tenuipalpidae Cenopalpus arbuti
leaf scale Aleyrodidae Dialeurodes setiger
leaf scale Aleyrodidae Trialeurodes lauri
leaf scale main Aleyrodidae Aleurotuba jelinekii
leaf scale Aleyrodidae Aleurotrachelus rhamnicola
leaf scale Diaspididae Aspidiotus nerii
leaf vagrant Aphididae Aphis spiraecola
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Aphis fabae fabae
stem vagrant Aphididae Aphis craccivora
stem vagrant Aphididae Aphis arbuti
stem witches’ broom Exobasidiales Exobasidium unedonis
leaf vagrant Aphididae Wahlgreniella nervata arbuti


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot: discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


Last modified 25.xii.2023