Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Empetrum nigrum


organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite
leaf hidden Tortricidae Phiaris schulziana
leaf hidden Gelechiidae Altenia perspersella
unknown unknown Noctuidae Xestia alpicola
flower vagrant Pentatomidae Chlorochroa juniperina
leaf vagrant doubtful Miridae Chlamydatus drymophilus
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Lasionycta staudingeri
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Anarta trifolii
leaf vagrant Geometridae Glacies coracina
leaf vagrant Geometridae Idaea contiguaria
leaf vagrant Lycaenidae Plebejus idas
leaf vagrant Lycaenidae Callophrys rubi
leaf vagrant doubtful Cicadellidae Macrosteles empetri
leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora sirella
leaf vagrant Chrysomelidae Altica longicollis
leaf vagrant Chrysomelidae Altica opacifrons
stem scale Eriococcidae Acanthococcus baldonensis
leaf hidden Gelechiidae Prolita sexpunctella
leaf vagrant Gelechiidae Aristotelia ericinella
leaf hidden Scythrididae Scythris empetrella
stem scale Diaspididae Diaspidiotus bavaricus
systemic gall Eriophyidae Aceria empetri
leaf miner Yponomeutidae Paraswammerdamia conspersella
leaf pustule uredinia telia Pucciniales Chrysomyxa empetri
leaf vagrant main Aphididae Ericaphis latifrons


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot: discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


Last modified 12.ii.2023