Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Calluna vulgaris

heather, ling

organparasitic modestagenotetaxonomic groupparasite
rootvagrantCurculionidaeStrophosoma sus
rootvagrantCurculionidaeStrophosoma nebulosum
stemgallEriococcidaeRhizococcus devoniensis
leafhiddenTortricidaeCelypha cespitana
unknownscaleEriococcidaeAcanthococcus ericae
leafhiddenOecophoridaePleurota bicostella
stemscaleEriococcidaeAcanthococcus baldonensis
rootscaleEriococcidaeAcanthococcus brevenniae
rootscalePseudococcidaePeliococcus calluneti
leafhiddenTortricidaeAncylis unguicella
stemscaleDiaspididaeLepidosaphes ulmi
leafhiddenTortricidaeEpinotia mercuriana
leafhiddenPyralidaeSelagia argyrella
leafhiddenGelechiidaeNeofaculta ericetella
leafhiddenGelechiidaeProlita sexpunctella
unknownunknownScythrididaeScythris ericetella
leafhiddenTortricidaeRhopobota naevana
leafhiddenPyralidaeRhodophaea formosa
leafhiddenPyralidaePempelia palumbella
leafhiddenTortricidaeSyndemis musculana
stemscaleDiaspididaeDiaspidiotus bavaricus
leafhiddenTortricidaePhiledonides lunana
leafhiddenTortricidaeAcleris hyemana
leafhiddenTortricidaeArgyrotaenia ljungiana
flowerhiddenTortricidaeEupoecilia angustana
leafhiddenTortricidaeAphelia viburniana
leafvagrantEriophyidaeCalacarus pusillus
flowerborerPterophoridaeAmblyptilia acanthadactyla
leafvagrantGelechiidaeAristotelia ericinella
flowerborerlarvaCurculionidaeMicrelus ericae
leafscaleAleyrodidaeCalluneyrodes callunae
stemscaleDiaspididaeLepidosaphes ulmi
stemvagrantdoubtfulPsyllidaeStrophingia proxima
leafvagrantPsyllidaeStrophingia ericae
leafdownErysiphalesErysiphe australiana
leafdownErysiphalesGolovinomyces orontii
leafgallEriophyidaeAceria exigua
leafminerColeophoridaeColeophora juncicolella
leafminerColeophoridaeColeophora pyrrhulipennella
leafpustuleurediniaPuccinialesThekopsora ericae
leafvagrantAphididaeEricaphis ericae
stemscaleCoccidaeEulecanium franconicum
leafvagrantAphididaeEricaphis latifrons
stemvagrantAphididaeAphis callunae


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


Last modified 17.v.2020