Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Andromeda polifolia


organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite
leaf vagrant Zygaenidae Rhagades pruni
leaf vagrant Tingidae Stephanitis oberti
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Coenophila subrosea
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Coranarta cordigera
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Syngrapha interrogationis
leaf vagrant Geometridae Eulithis testata
leaf vagrant Lycaenidae Plebejus optilete
leaf hidden Tortricidae Lozotaenia forsterana
leaf hidden Tortricidae Acleris lipsiana
leaf leaf spot Rhytismatales Rhytisma andromedae
leaf gall Eriophyidae Cecidophyopsis ruebsaameni
leaf gall Exobasidiales Exobasidium karstenii
leaf gall Exobasidiales Exobasidium sundstroemii
leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora vacciniella
stem gall Diaspididae Chionaspis salicis
leaf vagrant Aphididae Macrosiphum nasonovi
leaf vagrant doubtful Aphididae Aulacorthum flavum
stem vagrant Aphididae Aphis vaccinii


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot: discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


Last modified 25.iv.2023