Cortusa *, alpine bells
Dichotomous table for leafminers
1a mine full depth; the larva, with chitinised head, later lives free among spun leaves: Cnephasia asseclana
1b mine upper-surface, (weakly) greenish when held against the light; the larva, a maggot, mines all its life: Cheilosia laeviventris
1c galls, etc => Tables for all parasites per species
* Sometimes united with Primula.