Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Primula elatior


organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite
leaf leaf spot Phyllostictaceae Phyllosticta primulicola
leaf leaf spot Mycosphaerellaceae Cercosporella primulae
leaf leaf spot Capnodiales Ramularia interstitialis
leaf vagrant Curculionidae Barynotus moerens
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Diarsia mendica
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Noctua comes
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Noctua fimbriata
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Xestia stigmatica
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Anaplectoides prasina
leaf vagrant Erebidae Callimorpha dominula
leaf vagrant Geometridae Xanthorhoe montanata
leaf vagrant Geometridae Scopula immutata
leaf vagrant Riodinidae Hamearis lucina
leaf vagrant Aphididae Aulacorthum solani
flower gall Urocystidales Urocystis primulae
leaf down Peronosporales Peronospora oerteliana
leaf leaf spot Capnodiales Ramularia primulae
leaf miner Agromyzidae Chromatomyia primulae
leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora rectilineella
leaf miner Curculionidae Orthochaetes insignis
leaf pustule Chytridiales Synchytrium aureum
leaf pustule aecia uredinia telia Pucciniales Puccinia primulae
leaf pustule aecia uredinia telia Pucciniales Uromyces primulae-integrifoliae


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot: discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


Last modified 13.xi.2022