Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Borago officinalis


organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite
leaf hidden Gelechiidae Ethmia dodecea
root vagrant Tenebrionidae Opatrum sabulosum
predator Pteromalidae Miscogaster rufipes
root vagrant Cydnidae Sehirus morio
flower vagrant Scutelleridae Psacasta exanthematica
leaf vagrant Miridae Calocoris nemoralis
leaf vagrant Erebidae Ocnogyna baetica
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Phlogophora meticulosa
leaf vagrant Erebidae Utetheisa pulchella
leaf vagrant Geometridae Idaea camparia
fruit borer larva Curculionidae Mogulones borraginis
root borer Chrysomelidae Longitarsus echii
root vagrant Chrysomelidae Longitarsus dimidiatus
root vagrant Chrysomelidae Longitarsus corynthius
unknown unknown Curculionidae Rhabdorrhynchus vilhelmseni
unknown unknown Curculionidae Mogulones peregrinus
root borer larva Chrysomelidae Longitarsus anchusae
root vagrant Chrysomelidae Longitarsus lateripunctatus
leaf hidden Gelechiidae Ethmia candidella
leaf hidden Gelechiidae Ethmia pusiella
leaf vagrant Tenuipalpidae Brevipalpus obovatus
stem borer larva Curculionidae Mogulones asperifoliarum
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Myzus persicae
leaf down Erysiphales Golovinomyces cynoglossi complex
leaf leaf spot Entylomatales Entyloma boraginis
leaf leaf spot Entylomatales Entyloma serotinum
leaf miner Agromyzidae Agromyza abiens
leaf miner Agromyzidae Agromyza myosotidis
leaf pustule aecia Pucciniales Puccinia cerinthes-agropyrina
leaf pustule aecia Pucciniales Puccinia symphyti-bromorum
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Aphis fabae
unknown unknown Anthomyiidae Delia seideli
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Brachycaudus cardui
leaf vagrant Aphididae Aulacorthum solani
leaf vagrant Aphididae Myzus ornatus
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Brachycaudus helichrysi


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot: discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


Last modified 29.xii.2023