Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

genus Cynoglossum

organparasitic modestagenotetaxonomic groupparasite
leafpustuleaeciaPuccinialesAecidium asperifolii
root collarborerCerambycidaeCoptosia ganglbaueri
leafvagrantNoctuidaeEugnorisma glareosa
stemborerCerambycidaeOpsilia molybdaena
stemborerCerambycidaePhytoecia malachitica
stemborerCerambycidaeCoptosia bithynensis
stemborerCerambycidaePilemia serriventris
flowerborerCerambycidaeOpsilia coerulescens
leafvagrantNoctuidaeDiachrysia chrysitis
leafvagrantErebidaeCallimorpha dominula
leafvagrantNoctuidaeEuchalcia modestoides
leafhiddenNoctuidaeEuchalcia italica
flowervagrantTingidaeDictyla nassata
rootvagrantCurculionidaeAsperogronops inaequalis
rootborerChrysomelidaeLongitarsus echii
rootvagrantChrysomelidaeLongitarsus sencieri
leafvagrantrarelyCurculionidaeHerpes porcellus
unknownunknownCurculionidaeMogulones aubei
unknownunknownCurculionidaeMogulones cynoglossi
unknownunknownCurculionidaeMogulones cingulatus
rootvagrantChrysomelidaeLongitarsus dimidiatus
rootvagrantChrysomelidaeLongitarsus truncatellus
rootvagrantChrysomelidaeLongitarsus corynthius
rootvagrantChrysomelidaeLongitarsus fuscoaeneus
rootvagrantChrysomelidaeLongitarsus lateripunctatus
rootvagrantChrysomelidaeLongitarsus weisei
rootvagrantChrysomelidaeLongitarsus aeneus
rootvagrantChrysomelidaeLongitarsus quadriguttatus
rootvagrantChrysomelidaeLongitarsus nasturtii
rootvagrantChrysomelidaeLongitarsus exsoletus
rootvagrantChrysomelidaeLongitarsus cerinthes
leafhiddenGelechiidaeEthmia dodecea
leafhiddendoubtfulGelechiidaeEthmia bipunctella
leafmineryounger larvaTortricidaeCnephasia asseclana
leafhiddenolder larvaTortricidaeCnephasia asseclana
rootborerlarvaChrysomelidaeLongitarsus anchusae
unknownborerSyrphidaeCheilosia pascuorum
stemborerlarvaCurculionidaeMogulones asperifoliarum
fruitborerlarvaCurculionidaeMogulones borraginis
rootborerlarvaCurculionidaeMogulones crucifer
unknownborerlarvaCurculionidaeMogulones trisignatus
root collarvagrantAphididaeBrachycaudus bicolor
flowergallTingidaeDictyla echii
leafdownErysiphalesGolovinomyces cynoglossi
leafdownPeronosporalesPeronospora cynoglossi
leafleaf spotEntylomatalesEntyloma cynoglossi
leafminerAgromyzidaeAgromyza abiens
leafminerAgromyzidaeAgromyza myosotidis
leafminerColeophoridaeColeophora pennella
leafminerGracillariidaeDialectica scalariella
leafpustuleaeciaPuccinialesPuccinia cerinthes-agropyrina
leafpustuleaeciaPuccinialesPuccinia isiacae
leafpustuleaeciaPuccinialesPuccinia aegilopis
leafvagrantsummer generationAphididaeBrachycaudus cardui
leafvagrantsummer generationAphididaeBrachycaudus helichrysi
stemgallCurculionidaeRhabdorrhynchus seriegranosus
root collargallCurculionidaePachycerus segnis
leafvagrantsummer generationAphididaeAphis fabae


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


Last modified 30.xi.2021