Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

genus Cynoglossum

organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite
leaf pustule Albiginaceae Cystopus cynoglossi
leaf leaf spot Capnodiales Ramularia cynoglossi
leaf leaf spot Capnodiales Ramularia cynoglossi
seeds vagrant Lygaeidae Graptopeltus lynceus
leaf vagrant Tingidae Dictyla rotundata
leaf vagrant Tingidae Dictyla triconula
fruit vagrant Lygaeidae Aellopus atratus
leaf vagrant Coreidae Enoplops scapha
root vagrant Cydnidae Sehirus morio
flower vagrant Scutelleridae Psacasta exanthematica
leaf pustule aecia Pucciniales Aecidium asperifolii
root collar borer Cerambycidae Coptosia ganglbaueri
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Eugnorisma glareosa
stem borer Cerambycidae Opsilia molybdaena
stem borer Cerambycidae Phytoecia malachitica
stem borer Cerambycidae Coptosia bithynensis
stem borer Cerambycidae Pilemia serriventris
flower borer Cerambycidae Opsilia coerulescens
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Diachrysia chrysitis
leaf vagrant Erebidae Callimorpha dominula
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Euchalcia modestoides
leaf hidden Noctuidae Euchalcia italica
flower vagrant Tingidae Dictyla nassata
root vagrant Curculionidae Asperogronops inaequalis
root borer Chrysomelidae Longitarsus echii
root vagrant Chrysomelidae Longitarsus sencieri
leaf vagrant rarely Curculionidae Herpes porcellus
unknown unknown Curculionidae Mogulones aubei
unknown unknown Curculionidae Mogulones cynoglossi
unknown unknown Curculionidae Mogulones cingulatus
root vagrant Chrysomelidae Longitarsus dimidiatus
root vagrant Chrysomelidae Longitarsus truncatellus
root vagrant Chrysomelidae Longitarsus corynthius
root vagrant Chrysomelidae Longitarsus fuscoaeneus
root vagrant Chrysomelidae Longitarsus lateripunctatus
root vagrant Chrysomelidae Longitarsus weisei
root vagrant Chrysomelidae Longitarsus aeneus
root vagrant Chrysomelidae Longitarsus quadriguttatus
root vagrant Chrysomelidae Longitarsus nasturtii
root vagrant Chrysomelidae Longitarsus exsoletus
root vagrant Chrysomelidae Longitarsus cerinthes
leaf hidden Gelechiidae Ethmia dodecea
leaf hidden doubtful Gelechiidae Ethmia bipunctella
leaf miner younger larva Tortricidae Cnephasia asseclana
leaf hidden older larva Tortricidae Cnephasia asseclana
root borer larva Chrysomelidae Longitarsus anchusae
unknown borer Syrphidae Cheilosia pascuorum
stem borer larva Curculionidae Mogulones asperifoliarum
fruit borer larva Curculionidae Mogulones borraginis
root borer larva Curculionidae Mogulones crucifer
unknown borer larva Curculionidae Mogulones trisignatus
root collar vagrant Aphididae Brachycaudus bicolor
flower gall Tingidae Dictyla echii
leaf down Erysiphales Golovinomyces cynoglossi
leaf down Peronosporales Peronospora cynoglossi
leaf leaf spot Entylomatales Entyloma cynoglossi
leaf miner Agromyzidae Agromyza abiens
leaf miner Agromyzidae Agromyza myosotidis
leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora pennella
leaf miner Gracillariidae Dialectica scalariella
leaf pustule aecia Pucciniales Puccinia cerinthes-agropyrina
leaf pustule aecia Pucciniales Puccinia isiacae
leaf pustule aecia Pucciniales Puccinia aegilopis
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Brachycaudus cardui
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Brachycaudus helichrysi
stem gall Curculionidae Rhabdorrhynchus seriegranosus
root collar gall Curculionidae Pachycerus segnis
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Aphis fabae


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot: discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


Last modified 16.xi.2022