Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi


Echium viper’s bugloss

(For a dichotomous table for galls on Echium by Hans Roskam click here)

Dichotomous table for leafminers

1a fleck mine => 2

1b mine full depth => 3

1c mine entirely or largely upper- or lower-surface => 7

1d galls, etc => Tables for all parasites per species

2a larva in a helicoidal case: Apterona helicoidella

2b larva in a tubular case: Coleophora pennella

3a mine large with a strongly inflated centre => 4

3b mine small, irregular, without a clear centre => 5

4a mine mainly in the lower part of the leaf, causing strong malformation; often on Echium: Cynaeda dentalis

4b mine usually in the top half of the leaf, not causing strong malformation; rarely on Echium: Epascestria pustulalis

5a larva: pinacula colourless (the base of the setae is black): Cnephasia incertana

5b pinacula black => 6

6a larva: last abdomen segment with a black anal comb: Cnephasia asseclana

6b no anal comb present: Cnephasia stephensiana

7a larva with feet and a sclerotised head => 8

7b larva a maggot => 10

8a pupa naked in the mine, works itself halfway out of the mine prior to emergence: Dialectica scalariella

8b pupa remains in the mine => 9

9a pupa with a dense cover of fine, short “hairs”: Aproaerema lerauti

9b pop with a smooth integument: Perittia echiella

10a gallery from begin to end; pupation within the mine; frass in isolated grains: Chromatomyia horticola

10b blotch, may be preceded by a corridor; frass in thread fragments => 11

11a mine begins with a long an slender corridor part (often overrun by the later blotch, but as a rule still recognisable in the frass pattern); cephalic skeleton of the larva with three rearwards directed arms:: Agromyza abiens

11b no initial corridor; cephalic skeleton with two rearwards pointing arms: Phytomyza medicaginis

Not included in the key: Coleophora tauricella (inadequately described); Dialectica imperialella.

Tables for all parasites per species

Last modified 17.iv.2020