organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite
stem borer larva Curculionidae Mogulones asperifoliarum
root collar borer larva Curculionidae Mogulones larvatus
root borer larva Curculionidae Mogulones geographicus
leaf miner Agromyzidae Chromatomyia horticola
flower borer spring generation Douglasiidae Tinagma ocnerostomella
stem borer summer generation Douglasiidae Tinagma ocnerostomella
leaf vagrant Aphididae Aphis gossypii
flower gall Cecidomyiidae Asphondylia echii
flower gall Cecidomyiidae Contarinia echii
flower gall Tingidae Dictyla echii
leaf down Erysiphales Golovinomyces asperifolii
leaf down Erysiphales Leveillula taurica
leaf down Peronosporales Peronospora echii
leaf gall Eriophyidae Aceria echii
leaf miner Agromyzidae Agromyza abiens
leaf miner Agromyzidae Phytomyza medicaginis
leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora pennella
leaf miner Crambidae Cynaeda dentalis
leaf miner Gracillariidae Dialectica scalariella
leaf miner Psychidae Apterona helicoidella
leaf pustule aecia Pucciniales Puccinia cerinthes-agropyrina
leaf pustule telia Pucciniales Puccinia arnaudii
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Brachycaudus helichrysi
stem gall Asterolecaniidae Planchonia arabidis
stem gall Curculionidae Rhabdorrhynchus seriegranosus
root collar gall Curculionidae Pachycerus segnis
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Aphis fabae
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Brachycaudus cardui
leaf vagrant Aphididae Aphis spiraecola
leaf vagrant Aphididae Brachycaudus mordvilkoi


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.