Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Echium vulgare


organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite
leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora tauricella
leaf leaf spot Mycosphaerellaceae Cercospora echii
leaf leaf spot Mycosphaerellaceae Ramularia echii
leaf vagrant rarely Cydnidae Canthophorus dubius
leaf vagrant Tingidae Kalama tricornis
root vagrant Cydnidae Sehirus morio
leaf vagrant Miridae Chlamydatus pullus
leaf vagrant Miridae Europiella alpina
leaf vagrant Miridae Lygus rugulipennis
fruit vagrant Scutelleridae Psacasta neglecta
leaf vagrant Miridae Opisthotaenia fulvipes
leaf vagrant Miridae Plagiognathus bipunctatus
leaf vagrant Miridae Plagiognathus chrysanthemi
leaf vagrant Miridae Polymerus vulneratus
flower vagrant Miridae Megalocoleus molliculus
flower vagrant Scutelleridae Psacasta exanthematica
fruit vagrant Scutelleridae Psacasta granulata
fruit vagrant Lygaeidae Aellopus atratus
leaf vagrant Berytidae Neides aduncus
leaf vagrant Miridae Adelphocoris lineolatus
leaf vagrant Miridae Adelphocoris vandalicus
predator Anthocoridae Orius niger
leaf vagrant Coreidae Enoplops scapha
leaf vagrant Miridae Plagiognathus fulvipennis
leaf vagrant doubtful Miridae Conostethus venustus
leaf vagrant Cydnidae Sehirus ovatus
leaf vagrant Miridae Ribautocapsus bruckii
leaf vagrant Coreidae Ceraleptus lividus
leaf vagrant Pentatomidae Eysarcoris ventralis
leaf vagrant Pentatomidae Stagonomus bipunctatus
leaf vagrant Pentatomidae Stagonomus amoenus
leaf vagrant Pentatomidae Dolycoris baccarum
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Actebia praecox
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Diachrysia chrysitis
leaf vagrant Erebidae Spilosoma lubricipeda
leaf vagrant Erebidae Phragmatobia fuliginosa
root borer Sesiidae Tinthia tineiformis
leaf vagrant Erebidae Euplagia quadripunctaria
root vagrant Hepialidae Triodia sylvina
leaf vagrant Geometridae Synopsia sociaria
leaf vagrant Nymphalidae Vanessa cardui
leaf vagrant Pyralidae Udea ferrugalis
root borer larva Curculionidae Mogulones crucifer
leaf vagrant Ulopidae Utecha trivia
leaf vagrant Tingidae Dictyla rotundata
root borer Chrysomelidae Longitarsus echii
flower borer Cerambycidae Opsilia coerulescens
root vagrant Chrysomelidae Longitarsus corynthius
unknown borer larva Chrysomelidae Longitarsus linnaei
leaf vagrant rarely Curculionidae Herpes porcellus
unknown borer larva Curculionidae Mogulones andreae
root vagrant Chrysomelidae Longitarsus nasturtii
root vagrant doubtful Chrysomelidae Longitarsus niger
root borer larva Chrysomelidae Longitarsus anchusae
leaf hidden Thripidae Rubiothrips vitalbae
flower borer Nitidulidae Afrogethes planiusculus
flower borer Nitidulidae Afrogethes tristis
root vagrant Chrysomelidae Longitarsus aeneus
root vagrant Chrysomelidae Longitarsus pinguis
root vagrant doubtful Chrysomelidae Longitarsus weisei
root vagrant Chrysomelidae Longitarsus fuscoaeneus
root vagrant Chrysomelidae Longitarsus curtus
root vagrant Chrysomelidae Longitarsus exsoletus
root vagrant Chrysomelidae Longitarsus cerinthes
root vagrant doubtful Chrysomelidae Longitarsus quadriguttatus
flower borer Douglasiidae Tinagma balteolella
leaf hidden Tortricidae Lobesia artemisiana
leaf hidden Gelechiidae Ethmia bipunctella
root collar borer doubtful Gelechiidae Ethmia aurifluella
flower gall rarely Tingidae Dictyla humuli
leaf miner younger larva Tortricidae Cnephasia stephensiana
leaf hidden older larva Tortricidae Cnephasia stephensiana
flower borer Gelechiidae Ethmia terminella
stem borer larva Curculionidae Mogulones asperifoliarum
root collar borer larva Curculionidae Mogulones larvatus
root borer larva Curculionidae Mogulones geographicus
leaf miner Agromyzidae Chromatomyia horticola
flower borer spring generation Douglasiidae Tinagma ocnerostomella
stem borer summer generation Douglasiidae Tinagma ocnerostomella
leaf vagrant Aphididae Aphis gossypii
flower gall Cecidomyiidae Asphondylia echii
flower gall Cecidomyiidae Contarinia echii
flower gall Tingidae Dictyla echii
leaf down Erysiphales Golovinomyces asperifolii
leaf down Erysiphales Leveillula taurica
leaf down Peronosporales Peronospora echii
leaf gall Eriophyidae Aceria echii
leaf miner Agromyzidae Agromyza abiens
leaf miner Agromyzidae Phytomyza medicaginis
leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora pennella
leaf miner Crambidae Cynaeda dentalis
leaf miner Gracillariidae Dialectica scalariella
leaf miner Psychidae Apterona helicoidella
leaf pustule aecia Pucciniales Puccinia cerinthes-agropyrina
leaf pustule telia Pucciniales Puccinia arnaudii
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Brachycaudus helichrysi
stem gall Asterolecaniidae Planchonia arabidis
stem gall Curculionidae Rhabdorrhynchus seriegranosus
root collar gall Curculionidae Pachycerus segnis
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Aphis fabae
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Brachycaudus cardui
leaf vagrant Aphididae Aphis spiraecola
leaf vagrant Aphididae Brachycaudus mordvilkoi


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot: discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


Last modified 12.i.2023