Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

genus Echium

organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite
leaf vagrant Lasiocampidae Chondrostega escobesae
leaf leaf spot Mycosphaerellaceae Cercospora echii
leaf leaf spot Mycosphaerellaceae Ramularia echii
leaf vagrant Scutelleridae Odontoscelis fuliginosa
root vagrant Noctuidae Agrotis segetum
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Mniotype usurpatrix
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Cornutiplusia circumflexa
leaf vagrant rarely Cydnidae Canthophorus dubius
fruit vagrant Lygaeidae Nysius cymoides
leaf vagrant Tingidae Kalama tricornis
predator Anthocoridae Orius laevigatus
leaf vagrant Tingidae Dictyla indigena
seeds vagrant Lygaeidae Ischnocoris flavipes
leaf vagrant Coreidae Coriomeris denticulatus
seeds vagrant Lygaeidae Graptopeltus lynceus
seeds vagrant Lygaeidae Rhyparochromus seidenstueckeri
seeds vagrant Lygaeidae Liolobus walkeri
leaf vagrant Miridae Macrotylus longulus
leaf vagrant Miridae Polymerus vulneratus
flower vagrant Miridae Megalocoleus molliculus
fruit vagrant Scutelleridae Psacasta neglecta
root vagrant Cydnidae Canthophorus melanopterus
leaf vagrant Miridae Chlamydatus pullus
leaf vagrant Miridae Europiella alpina
leaf vagrant Miridae Lygus rugulipennis
leaf vagrant Miridae Plagiognathus bipunctatus
leaf vagrant Miridae Plagiognathus chrysanthemi
leaf vagrant Lygaeidae Heterogaster urticae
leaf vagrant Miridae Lepidargyrus ancorifer
leaf vagrant Miridae Lepidargyrus senguni
leaf vagrant Pyrrhocoridae Pyrrhocoris marginatus
leaf vagrant Berytidae Neides brevipennis
flower vagrant Scutelleridae Psacasta exanthematica
fruit vagrant Lygaeidae Aellopus atratus
fruit vagrant Scutelleridae Psacasta granulata
leaf vagrant Berytidae Neides aduncus
leaf vagrant Pentatomidae Codophila varia
predator Anthocoridae Orius niger
leaf vagrant Coreidae Enoplops scapha
leaf vagrant Miridae Plagiognathus fulvipennis
root vagrant Cydnidae Crocistethus waltlianus
leaf vagrant Cydnidae Sehirus luctuosus
root vagrant Cydnidae Sehirus morio
leaf vagrant Pentatomidae Carpocoris mediterraneus
fruit vagrant Scutelleridae Psacasta tuberculata
leaf vagrant Miridae Adelphocoris lineolatus
leaf vagrant Miridae Adelphocoris seticornis
leaf vagrant Miridae Adelphocoris vandalicus
leaf vagrant Miridae Calocoris roseomaculatus
seeds vagrant Lygaeidae Tropidophlebia costalis
leaf vagrant Miridae Opisthotaenia fulvipes
leaf vagrant doubtful Miridae Conostethus venustus
leaf vagrant Cydnidae Sehirus ovatus
leaf vagrant Miridae Ribautocapsus bruckii
leaf vagrant Coreidae Ceraleptus lividus
leaf vagrant Pentatomidae Eysarcoris ventralis
leaf vagrant Pentatomidae Stagonomus bipunctatus
leaf vagrant Pentatomidae Stagonomus amoenus
leaf vagrant Pentatomidae Dolycoris baccarum
leaf vagrant adult Curculionidae Otiorhynchus ligneus
leaf pustule aecia Pucciniales Aecidium asperifolii
scale Pseudococcidae Pelionella manifecta
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Actebia praecox
stem borer Cerambycidae Opsilia molybdaena
stem borer Cerambycidae Agapanthia violacea
stem borer Cerambycidae Phytoecia malachitica
leaf vagrant Lasiocampidae Lasiocampa terreni
root collar borer Cerambycidae Coptosia ganglbaueri
root collar borer Cerambycidae Oxylia argentata
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Chrysodeixis chalcites
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Diachrysia chrysitis
leaf vagrant Erebidae Spilosoma lubricipeda
leaf vagrant Erebidae Phragmatobia fuliginosa
leaf vagrant Erebidae Utetheisa pulchella
root borer Sesiidae Tinthia tineiformis
leaf vagrant Erebidae Euplagia quadripunctaria
root vagrant Hepialidae Triodia sylvina
leaf vagrant Geometridae Synopsia sociaria
leaf vagrant Nymphalidae Vanessa cardui
leaf vagrant Pyralidae Udea ferrugalis
root borer larva Curculionidae Mogulones crucifer
leaf vagrant Ulopidae Utecha trivia
leaf vagrant Cicadellidae Selenocephalus nervosus
leaf vagrant Tingidae Dictyla rotundata
root borer Chrysomelidae Longitarsus echii
flower vagrant Tingidae Dictyla nassata
flower borer Cerambycidae Opsilia coerulescens
root vagrant Chrysomelidae Longitarsus peyerimhoffi
root vagrant Chrysomelidae Longitarsus bulgaricus
root vagrant Chrysomelidae Longitarsus succineus
root vagrant Chrysomelidae Longitarsus jandiensis
unknown unknown Curculionidae Mogulones pseudopollinarius
root vagrant Chrysomelidae Longitarsus isoplexidis
root vagrant Chrysomelidae Longitarsus persimilis
stem borer Curculionidae Liparthrum canum
root vagrant Chrysomelidae Longitarsus gomerensis
root collar borer Curculionidae Mogulones deiectus
leaf vagrant rarely Curculionidae Herpes porcellus
unknown borer larva Curculionidae Mogulones andreae
unknown borer Curculionidae Mogulones gibbicollis
root vagrant doubtful Chrysomelidae Longitarsus niger
leaf hidden Thripidae Rubiothrips vitalbae
flower borer Nitidulidae Afrogethes isoplexidis
flower borer Nitidulidae Afrogethes tristis
flower borer Nitidulidae Afrogethes canariensis
flower borer Nitidulidae Afrogethes buduensis
root vagrant Chrysomelidae Longitarsus dimidiatus
root vagrant Chrysomelidae Longitarsus corynthius
flower borer Nitidulidae Afrogethes planiusculus
root vagrant Chrysomelidae Longitarsus aeneus
root vagrant Chrysomelidae Longitarsus pinguis
root vagrant doubtful Chrysomelidae Longitarsus weisei
root vagrant Chrysomelidae Longitarsus fuscoaeneus
root vagrant Chrysomelidae Longitarsus truncatellus
root vagrant doubtful Chrysomelidae Longitarsus quadriguttatus
root vagrant Chrysomelidae Longitarsus nasturtii
root vagrant Chrysomelidae Longitarsus cerinthes
root vagrant Chrysomelidae Longitarsus curtus
root vagrant Chrysomelidae Longitarsus exsoletus
unknown unknown Curculionidae Mogulones beckeri
unknown unknown Curculionidae Mogulones korbi
leaf hidden doubtful Crambidae Achyra nudalis
flower borer Douglasiidae Tinagma balteolella
leaf hidden Tortricidae Lobesia artemisiana
leaf hidden Gelechiidae Ethmia bipunctella
root collar borer doubtful Gelechiidae Ethmia aurifluella
flower gall rarely Tingidae Dictyla humuli
leaf miner younger larva Tortricidae Cnephasia asseclana
leaf hidden older larva Tortricidae Cnephasia asseclana
leaf hidden Tortricidae Cnephasia pasiuana
leaf hidden Tortricidae Cnephasia incertana
leaf miner younger larva Tortricidae Cnephasia stephensiana
leaf hidden older larva Tortricidae Cnephasia stephensiana
flower borer Gelechiidae Ethmia terminella
root borer larva Chrysomelidae Longitarsus anchusae
unknown borer larva Chrysomelidae Longitarsus linnaei
stem borer larva Curculionidae Mogulones asperifoliarum
root borer larva Curculionidae Mogulones geographicus
root collar borer larva Curculionidae Mogulones larvatus
leaf scale Aleyrodidae Bemisia afer
leaf miner Agromyzidae Chromatomyia horticola
flower borer spring generation Douglasiidae Tinagma ocnerostomella
stem borer summer generation Douglasiidae Tinagma ocnerostomella
root collar vagrant Aphididae Brachycaudus bicolor
leaf miner doubtful Coleophoridae Coleophora gallurella
leaf vagrant Aphididae Aphis gossypii
flower gall Cecidomyiidae Asphondylia echii
flower gall Cecidomyiidae Contarinia echii
flower gall Tingidae Dictyla echii
leaf down Erysiphales Golovinomyces asperifolii
leaf down Erysiphales Leveillula taurica
leaf down Peronosporales Peronospora echii
leaf gall Eriophyidae Aceria echii
leaf miner Agromyzidae Agromyza abiens
leaf miner Agromyzidae Phytomyza medicaginis
leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora pennella
leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora tauricella
leaf miner Crambidae Cynaeda dentalis
leaf miner Crambidae Epascestria pustulalis
leaf miner Elachistidae Perittia echiella
leaf miner Gelechiidae Aproaerema lerauti
leaf miner Gracillariidae Dialectica imperialella
leaf miner Gracillariidae Dialectica scalariella
leaf miner Psychidae Apterona helicoidella
leaf pustule Chytridiales Synchytrium echii
leaf pustule aecia Pucciniales Puccinia cerinthes-agropyrina
leaf pustule aecia Pucciniales Puccinia isiacae
leaf pustule aecia Pucciniales Puccinia aegilopis
leaf pustule telia Pucciniales Puccinia arnaudii
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Brachycaudus cardui
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Brachycaudus helichrysi
stem gall Asterolecaniidae Planchonia arabidis
stem gall Curculionidae Rhabdorrhynchus seriegranosus
root collar gall Curculionidae Pachycerus segnis
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Aphis fabae
leaf vagrant Aphididae Aphis spiraecola
leaf vagrant Aphididae Brachycaudus mordvilkoi


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot: discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


Last modified 12.i.2023