Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Lithospermum

Lithospermum gromwell

(For a dichotomous table for galls on Lithospermum by Hans Roskam click here)

Dichotomous table for leafminers

1a fleck mine: Coleophora pennella

1b corridor or blotch =>2

1c galls, etc => Tables for all parasites per species

2a mine at least partly full depth, whitish in transparency; larva with feet and chitinised head => 3

2b mine upper- or lower-surface, greenish in transparency; larva a maggot => 4

3a mine very small, irregulary in shape; older larvae live free among spun leaves: Cnephasia incertana

3b mine a large blotch; larvae mine all their life: Dialectica imperialella

4a corridor from start to end: Chromatomyia horticola

4b mine eventually a blotch => 5

4a larva: cephalic skeleton with 2 arms directed backwards => 6

4b cephalic skeleton with 3 arms directed backwards => 7

6a larvae communal: Phytomyza medicaginis

6b larva solitary: Phytomyza lithospermi

7a secondary feeding lines conspicuous; in the blotch the frass more or less reticulate: Agromyza abiens

7b secondary feeding lines inconspicuous; in the blotch the frass not reticulate: Agromyza lithospermi

Tables for all parasites per species

Last modified 25.iv.2020