Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Lithospermum officinale

common gromwell

organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite
leaf leaf spot Mycosphaerellaceae Ramularia cerinthes
flower vagrant Scutelleridae Psacasta exanthematica
flower borer Cerambycidae Opsilia coerulescens
root vagrant Chrysomelidae Longitarsus curtus
root vagrant Chrysomelidae Longitarsus suturalis
root vagrant Chrysomelidae Longitarsus aeneicollis
root vagrant doubtful Chrysomelidae Longitarsus quadriguttatus
leaf hidden Gelechiidae Ethmia bipunctella
leaf hidden Gelechiidae Ethmia quadrillella
leaf hidden Gelechiidae Ethmia candidella
leaf hidden Gelechiidae Ethmia pusiella
leaf hidden Gelechiidae Ethmia dodecea
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Brachycaudus cardui
leaf bud gall Cecidomyiidae Dasineura lithospermi
leaf down Erysiphales Golovinomyces cynoglossi complex
leaf down Peronosporales Peronospora lithospermi
leaf miner Agromyzidae Agromyza abiens
leaf miner Agromyzidae Agromyza lithospermi
leaf miner Agromyzidae Phytomyza lithospermi
leaf miner Agromyzidae Phytomyza medicaginis
leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora pennella
leaf miner Gracillariidae Dialectica imperialella
leaf pustule Chytridiales Synchytrium myosotidis
leaf pustule aecia Pucciniales Puccinia cerinthes-agropyrina
leaf pustule aecia doubtful Pucciniales Puccinia recondita
stem gall Asterolecaniidae Planchonia arabidis
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Brachycaudus helichrysi


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot: discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


Last modified 22.vii.2022