Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

gallers on genus Pulmonaria

Dichotomous table for gallers on Pulmonaria

by Hans Roskam

1a On flowers or fruits => 4

1b On leaves and occasionally on stems => 2

2a Malformations caused by aphids => 3

2b On the leaf blades, even on calyx lobes, rotund, elongated oval, yellowish, aecia and spermogonia bearing bulges, weakly protruding on underside stronger on leaf axis, -stalk or stem. Pulmonaria spp.: Puccinia recondita

3a Basal leaves with transverse- or marginal roll downwards, also upwards. Leaf blades irregularly curled or bulging. Apterous aphids 1.8–2.9 mm long. Body pear-shaped, pale yellowish to green, with a dark, green spot at each insertion of pale, very short siphunculi. P. obscura, officinalis: Aulacorthum solani

= As causer of disfigured leaves on P. obscura, the aphid Aphis symphyti has been reported, living mainly on Symphytum

3b Malformations similar. Aphid 1.5–2 mm long, pale yellowish to yellow-green. Siphunculi pale, longer than those of previous species, reaching about 1/5 to ¼ of body length. P. officinalis: Brachycaudus helichrysi

4a Flowers thickened, unopened. Containing several white larvae. P. obscura, officinalis: Unidentified gall midge

4b Mericarps greatly enlarged, as long as calyx. Pistil slightly changed. Containing orange-red larvae. P. montana, etc.: Unidentified gall midge

Last modified 18.xi.2023