organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite
leaf vagrant Eriophyidae Anthocoptes pulmonariae
root borer larva Chrysomelidae Longitarsus anchusae
root collar borer larva Curculionidae Mogulones larvatus
unknown borer larva Curculionidae Mogulones pallidicornis
leaf vagrant Aphididae Amphorosiphon pulmonariae
leaf gall spring generation Aphididae Brachycaudus cardui
flower gall Tingidae Dictyla echii
flower gall Tingidae Dictyla humuli
leaf down Erysiphales Golovinomyces asperifoliorum
leaf down Peronosporales Peronospora omphalodis
leaf down Peronosporales Peronospora pulmonariae
leaf gall Aphididae Aulacorthum langei
leaf miner Agromyzidae Agromyza abiens
leaf miner Agromyzidae Agromyza ferruginosa
leaf miner Agromyzidae Phytomyza pulmonariae
leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora pennella
leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora pulmonariella
leaf miner Gracillariidae Dialectica imperialella
leaf miner Sciaridae Phytosciara halterata
leaf miner Sciaridae Phytosciara macrotricha
leaf miner Tortricidae Cnephasia incertana
leaf miner Tortricidae Cnephasia stephensiana
leaf pustule aecia Pucciniales Puccinia symphyti-bromorum
leaf pustule telia Pucciniales Puccinia arnaudii
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Brachycaudus helichrysi
leaf vagrant Aphididae Aulacorthum solani
leaf vagrant Aphididae Ovatomyzus boraginacearum
root collar vagrant Aphididae Brachycaudus jacobi


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


mod 4.x.2019