Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Symphytum officinale

common comfrey

synonym: Symphytum officinale subsp. bohemicum

organparasitic modestagenotetaxonomic groupparasite
leafvagrantErebidaePhragmatobia fuliginosa
leafvagrantLasiocampidaeMacrothylacia rubi
leafvagrantNoctuidaeEuchalcia modestoides
stemborerAnthomyzidaeParanthomyza nitida
leafvagrantCicadellidaeEmpoasca decipiens
rootvagrantChrysomelidaeLongitarsus aeneicollis
rootvagrantChrysomelidaeLongitarsus fuscoaeneus
rootvagrantChrysomelidaeLongitarsus lateripunctatus
unknownborerlarvaChrysomelidaeLongitarsus linnaei
rootvagrantChrysomelidaeLongitarsus nasturtii
rootvagrantChrysomelidaeLongitarsus succineus
unknownunknownCurculionidaeMogulones sahini
stemborerlarvaCurculionidaeMogulones asperifoliarum
rootvagrantChrysomelidaeLongitarsus monticola
rootvagrantChrysomelidaeLongitarsus curtus
flowerborerNitidulidaeBoragogethes symphyti
rootvagrantChrysomelidaeLongitarsus exsoletus
rootvagrantChrysomelidaeLongitarsus symphyti
rootvagrantdoubtfulChrysomelidaeLongitarsus noricus
rootvagrantChrysomelidaeLongitarsus pulmonariae
leafvagrantTenthredinidaeTenthredo procera
unknownunknowndoubtfulGelechiidaeEthmia lugubris
leafhiddenGelechiidaeEthmia quadrillella
leafhiddenTortricidaeClepsis spectrana
leafhiddendoubtfulTortricidaeAcleris laterana
rootborerlarvamainChrysomelidaeLongitarsus anchusae
rootborerlarvaCurculionidaeMogulones abbreviatulus
stemborerlarvaCurculionidaeMogulones raphani
leafvagrantsummer generationAphididaeBrachycaudus helichrysi
stemborerAgromyzidaeMelanagromyza symphyti
flowergallCecidomyiidaeContarinia symphyti
flowergallCecidomyiidaeDasineura symphyti
flowergallTingidaeDictyla echii
flowergallmainTingidaeDictyla humuli
leafdownErysiphalesGolovinomyces asperifoliorum
leafdownPeronosporalesPeronospora symphyti
leafleaf spotEntylomatalesEntyloma serotinum
leafgallAphididaeAphis symphyti
leafgallCecidomyiidaeDasineura foliumcrispans
leafgallChytridialesSynchytrium trichophilum
leafminerAgromyzidaeAgromyza abiens
leafminerAgromyzidaeAgromyza ferruginosa
leafminerAgromyzidaeAgromyza myosotidis
leafminerAgromyzidaePhytomyza medicaginis
leafminerAgromyzidaePhytomyza pulmonariae
leafminerColeophoridaeColeophora pennella
leafminerColeophoridaeColeophora pulmonariella
leafminerGracillariidaeDialectica imperialella
leafminerGracillariidaeDialectica scalariella
leafminerSciaridaePhytosciara macrotricha
leafpustuleBlastocladialesPhysoderma speciosum
leafpustuleChytridialesSynchytrium jaapianum
leafpustuleaeciaPuccinialesPuccinia symphyti-bromorum
leafpustuleuredinia teliaPuccinialesMelampsorella symphyti
leafvagrantsummer generationAphididaeBrachycaudus cardui
leafvagrantAphididaeBrachycaudus mordvilkoi


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


Last modified 12.vii.2021