Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Symphytum officinale

common comfrey

synonym: Symphytum officinale subsp. bohemicum

organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite
root collar scale Pseudococcidae Atrococcus paludinus
leaf hidden Gelechiidae Ethmia dodecea
leaf leaf spot Didymellaceae Ascochyta boraginis
flower hidden Phlaeothripidae Haplothrips juncorum
leaf leaf spot Mycosphaerellaceae Septoria symphyti
leaf leaf spot Mycosphaerellaceae Ramularia calcea
leaf leaf spot Mycosphaerellaceae Ramularia tecta
leaf leaf spot Mycosphaerellaceae Ramularia cylindroides
predator Cecidomyiidae Lestodiplosis vorax
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Ochropleura plecta
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Atypha pulmonaris
leaf vagrant Erebidae Phragmatobia fuliginosa
leaf vagrant Lasiocampidae Macrothylacia rubi
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Euchalcia modestoides
stem borer Anthomyzidae Paranthomyza nitida
leaf vagrant Cicadellidae Empoasca decipiens
root vagrant Chrysomelidae Longitarsus aeneicollis
root vagrant Chrysomelidae Longitarsus fuscoaeneus
root vagrant Chrysomelidae Longitarsus lateripunctatus
unknown borer larva Chrysomelidae Longitarsus linnaei
root vagrant Chrysomelidae Longitarsus nasturtii
root vagrant Chrysomelidae Longitarsus succineus
unknown unknown Curculionidae Mogulones sahini
stem borer larva Curculionidae Mogulones asperifoliarum
root vagrant Chrysomelidae Longitarsus monticola
root vagrant Chrysomelidae Longitarsus curtus
flower borer Nitidulidae Boragogethes symphyti
root vagrant Chrysomelidae Longitarsus exsoletus
root vagrant Chrysomelidae Longitarsus symphyti
root vagrant doubtful Chrysomelidae Longitarsus noricus
root vagrant Chrysomelidae Longitarsus pulmonariae
leaf vagrant Tenthredinidae Tenthredo procera
unknown unknown doubtful Gelechiidae Ethmia lugubris
leaf hidden Gelechiidae Ethmia quadrillella
leaf hidden Tortricidae Clepsis spectrana
leaf hidden doubtful Tortricidae Acleris laterana
root borer larva main Chrysomelidae Longitarsus anchusae
root borer larva Curculionidae Mogulones abbreviatulus
stem borer larva Curculionidae Mogulones raphani
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Brachycaudus helichrysi
stem borer Agromyzidae Melanagromyza symphyti
flower gall Cecidomyiidae Contarinia symphyti
flower gall Cecidomyiidae Dasineura symphyti
flower gall Tingidae Dictyla echii
flower gall main Tingidae Dictyla humuli
leaf down Erysiphales Golovinomyces asperifoliorum
leaf down Peronosporales Peronospora symphyti
leaf leaf spot Entylomatales Entyloma serotinum
leaf gall Aphididae Aphis symphyti
leaf gall Cecidomyiidae Dasineura foliumcrispans
leaf gall Chytridiales Synchytrium trichophilum
leaf miner Agromyzidae Agromyza abiens
leaf miner Agromyzidae Agromyza ferruginosa
leaf miner Agromyzidae Agromyza myosotidis
leaf miner Agromyzidae Phytomyza medicaginis
leaf miner Agromyzidae Phytomyza pulmonariae
leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora pennella
leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora pulmonariella
leaf miner Gracillariidae Dialectica imperialella
leaf miner Gracillariidae Dialectica scalariella
leaf miner Sciaridae Phytosciara macrotricha
leaf pustule Blastocladiales Physoderma speciosum
leaf pustule Chytridiales Synchytrium jaapianum
leaf pustule aecia Pucciniales Puccinia symphyti-bromorum
leaf pustule uredinia telia Pucciniales Melampsorella symphyti
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Brachycaudus cardui
leaf vagrant Aphididae Brachycaudus mordvilkoi


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot: discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


Last modified 28.i.2024