Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

genus Heliotropium

organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite
unknown unknown Phlaeothripidae Haplothrips bolacophilus
flower predator Phlaeothripidae Haplothrips reuteri
unknown unknown Thripidae Tenothrips ononidis
root gall Meloidogynidae Meloidogyne javanica
leaf vagrant Lycaenidae Chilades trochylus
leaf vagrant Gelechiidae Ethmia quadrinotella
leaf vagrant Tingidae Kalama tricornis
systemic down Sclerotiniaceae Botrytis cinerea
root film Ceratobasidiaceae Rhizoctonia solani
leaf leaf spot Mycosphaerellaceae Cercospora heliotropii-bocconii
leaf leaf spot Mycosphaerellaceae Cercospora taurica
leaf vagrant Lygaeidae Cosmopleurus fulvipes
leaf vagrant Miridae Polymerus cognatus
leaf vagrant Miridae Badezorus signaticornis
predator Miridae Campylomma verbasci
leaf vagrant Berytidae Gampsocoris punctipes
root vagrant Cydnidae Amaurocoris curtus
leaf vagrant Pentatomidae Piezodorus teretipes
leaf vagrant Erebidae Utetheisa pulchella
root vagrant Chrysomelidae Longitarsus brevipennis
root vagrant Chrysomelidae Longitarsus cerinthes
root vagrant Chrysomelidae Longitarsus albineus
root scale Pseudococcidae Mirococcus inermis
root collar gall Curculionidae Pachycerus segnis
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Aphis fabae
leaf down Erysiphales Leveillula taurica
leaf miner Agromyzidae Liriomyza strigata
leaf miner Crambidae Dentifovea fulvifascialis
leaf pustule aecia uredinia telia Pucciniales Uromyces heliotropi
root vagrant summer generation Aphididae Smynthurodes betae


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot: discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


Last modified 10.xi.2023