Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

genus Nerium

organparasitic modestagenotetaxonomic groupparasite
stemscalePseudococcidaeParacoccus burnerae
scaleCoccidaeCeroplastes cirripediformis
leafscaleCoccidaeCeroplastes floridensis
stemscalePseudococcidaePseudococcus viburni
stemscalePseudococcidaePseudococcus longispinus
leafscaleCoccidaeSaissetia coffeae
stemgallAsterolecaniidaePlanchonia fimbriata
scaleDiaspididaeChrysomphalus aonidum
scaleDiaspididaeChrysomphalus dictyospermi
leafscaleDiaspididaeIschnaspis longirostris
stemscaleMargarodidaeIcerya purchasi
stemborerCerambycidaeParmena subpubescens
stemborerCerambycidaeParmena pubescens
stemborerCerambycidaeParmena balteus
stemborerCerambycidaeParmena slamai
stemborerCerambycidaeDeroplia troberti
stemscaleCoccidaeCeroplastes rusci
flowervagrantGeometridaeGymnoscelis rufifasciata
leafvagrantSphingidaeAcherontia atropos
leafvagrantSphingidaeDaphnis nerii
stemborerBuprestidaeAnthaxia millefolii
leafvagrantTetranychidaeEotetranychus hirsti
unknownunknowndoubtfulPhlaeothripidaeHaplothrips balsaminus
leafscaleAleyrodidaeBemisia tabaci
stemscalePseudococcidaePlanococcus ficus
stemscaleDiaspididaeDiaspidiotus lenticularis
flowerhiddenThripidaeFrankliniella intonsa
leafvagrantTetranychidaeTetranychus urticae
leafscaleAleyrodidaeTrialeurodes vaporariorum
leafscaleAleyrodidaeAleurodicus dispersus
stemscaleCoccidaeSaissetia oleae
leafscaleDiaspididaeAspidiotus nerii
leafscaleCoccidaeCoccus hesperidum
systemicscaleDiaspididaeParlatoria oleae
leafvagrantAphididaeAphis spiraecola
leafvagrantAphididaeAphis gossypii
leafvagrantsummer generationAphididaeAphis fabae solanella
leafvagrantsummer generationAphididaeAphis fabae
leafgallAphididaeAphis nerii
leafgallPseudomonadalesPseudomonas savastanoi pv nerii


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


Last modified 14.xi.2021