Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Nerium oleander

synonym: Nerium odorum

organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite
flower predator Phlaeothripidae Haplothrips reuteri
flower hidden Thripidae Thrips hawaiiensis
flower predator Aeolothripidae Aeolothrips collaris
leaf vagrant Thripidae Thrips major
flower hidden Thripidae Thrips meridionalis
unknown unknown Phlaeothripidae Haplothrips andresi
stem vagrant Issidae Mycterodus spinicordatus
stem borer Buprestidae Anthaxia cichorii
stem borer Buprestidae Anthaxia umbellatarum
dead wood borer Cerambycidae Pogonocherus pepa
dead wood borer Cerambycidae Xylotrechus stebbingi
stem borer Cerambycidae Trichoferus fasciculatus
stem scale Diaspididae Aonidiella aurantii
unknown unknown Diaspididae Aonidiella citrina
stem scale Diaspididae Lepidosaphes ulmi
leaf scale Diaspididae Parlatoreopsis longispina
leaf vagrant Tetranychidae Bryobia rubrioculus
stem borer Buprestidae Anthaxia millefolii
stem scale Coccidae Ceroplastes japonicus
stem scale Coccidae Eulecanium tiliae
stem scale Pseudococcidae Pseudococcus calceolariae
leaf scale Pseudococcidae Pseudococcus maritimus
leaf leaf spot Mycosphaerellaceae Septoria oleandrina
leaf vagrant Lygaeidae Lygaeus creticus
leaf vagrant Lygaeidae Caenocoris nerii
fruit vagrant Lygaeidae Lygaeus equestris
leaf vagrant Cicadellidae Placotettix taeniatifrons
leaf vagrant Lygaeidae Spilostethus pandurus
leaf vagrant Pentatomidae Antheminia lunulata
leaf vagrant Sphingidae Acherontia atropos
stem scale Pseudococcidae Paracoccus burnerae
scale Coccidae Ceroplastes cirripediformis
stem scale Pseudococcidae Planococcus citri
leaf scale Coccidae Ceroplastes floridensis
stem scale Pseudococcidae Pseudococcus viburni
stem scale Pseudococcidae Pseudococcus longispinus
leaf scale Coccidae Saissetia coffeae
stem gall Asterolecaniidae Planchonia fimbriata
scale Diaspididae Chrysomphalus aonidum
scale Diaspididae Chrysomphalus dictyospermi
leaf scale Diaspididae Ischnaspis longirostris
stem scale Margarodidae Icerya purchasi
stem borer Cerambycidae Parmena subpubescens
stem borer Cerambycidae Parmena pubescens
stem borer Cerambycidae Parmena balteus
stem borer Cerambycidae Parmena slamai
stem borer Cerambycidae Deroplia troberti
stem scale Coccidae Ceroplastes rusci
flower vagrant Geometridae Gymnoscelis rufifasciata
leaf vagrant Sphingidae Daphnis nerii
unknown unknown doubtful Phlaeothripidae Haplothrips balsaminus
leaf scale Aleyrodidae Bemisia tabaci
stem scale Pseudococcidae Planococcus ficus
stem scale Diaspididae Diaspidiotus lenticularis
flower hidden Thripidae Frankliniella intonsa
leaf vagrant Tetranychidae Tetranychus urticae
leaf scale Aleyrodidae Trialeurodes vaporariorum
leaf scale Aleyrodidae Aleurodicus dispersus
stem scale Coccidae Saissetia oleae
leaf scale Diaspididae Aspidiotus nerii
leaf scale Coccidae Coccus hesperidum
systemic scale Diaspididae Parlatoria oleae
leaf vagrant Aphididae Aphis spiraecola
leaf vagrant Aphididae Aphis gossypii
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Aphis fabae solanella
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Aphis fabae fabae
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Aphis fabae
leaf gall Aphididae Aphis nerii
leaf gall Pseudomonadales Pseudomonas savastanoi pv nerii


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot: discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


Last modified 9.x.2023