Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Gentiana asclepiadea

willow gentian

organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite
leaf vagrant Aphididae Metopeurum gentianae
leaf hidden Tortricidae Argyrotaenia ljungiana
root borer Pterophoridae Stenoptilia graphodactyla
leaf leaf spot Venturiaceae Venturia atriseda
leaf leaf spot Phyllostictaceae Phyllosticta gentianellae
leaf leaf spot Capnodiales Ramularia evanida
fruit vagrant Lygaeidae Spilostethus saxatilis
leaf vagrant doubtful Lygaeidae Tropidothorax leucopterus
leaf vagrant Nymphalidae Euphydryas aurinia
flower vagrant younger larva Lycaenidae Phengaris alcon
leaf vagrant Tenthredinidae Tenthredo atra
leaf vagrant Tenthredinidae Tenthredo propinqua
leaf hidden Pyralidae Udea alpinalis
leaf vagrant Eriophyidae Epitrimerus gentianae
stem borer Pterophoridae Stenoptilia asclepiadeae
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Aphis fabae fabae
fruit borer Anthomyiidae Botanophila gentianae
leaf gall Aphididae Aphis gentianae
flower gall Eriophyidae Aculus kerneri
leaf miner Agromyzidae Chromatomyia gentianae
leaf miner Agromyzidae Chromatomyia gentianella
leaf pustule aecia uredinia telia Pucciniales Puccinia gentianae
leaf pustule uredinia telia Pucciniales Cronartium flaccidum
systemic gall Eriophyidae Aculus kerneri


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot: discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


Last modified 6.v.2023