Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

genus Gentiana

organparasitic modestagenotetaxonomic groupparasite
leafvagrantNoctuidaeLacanobia contigua
leafvagrantNoctuidaeCeramica pisi
flowervagrantNoctuidaeElaphria venustula
flowervagrantGeometridaeEupithecia subumbrata
flowervagrantGeometridaeEupithecia satyrata
fruitvagrantGeometridaePerizoma juracolaria
flowervagrantGeometridaeMesotype didymata
fruitvagrantGeometridaePerizoma obsoletata
flowervagrantyounger larvaLycaenidaePhengaris rebeli
leafvagrantdoubtfulNymphalidaeMelitaea varia
leafvagrantNymphalidaeEuphydryas aurinia
flowervagrantyounger larvaLycaenidaePhengaris alcon
leafvagrantTenthredinidaeTenthredo atra
leafvagrantTenthredinidaeTenthredo propinqua
leafvagrantThripidaeThrips gentluteae
flowerhiddenThripidaeThrips robustus
flowergallEriophyidaeEriophyes gentianae
leafhiddenPyralidaeUdea alpinalis
leafhiddenTortricidaeClepsis senecionana
leafmineryounger larvaTortricidaeCnephasia asseclana
leafhiddenolder larvaTortricidaeCnephasia asseclana
leafhiddenTortricidaeCnephasia incertana
fruitborerTortricidaeFalseuncaria ruficiliana
leafhiddenTortricidaeArgyrotaenia ljungiana
flowerhiddenTortricidaeEndothenia marginana
root collarborerTortricidaeAethes aurofasciana
leafvagrantEriophyidaeEpitrimerus gentianae
rootborerPterophoridaeStenoptilia graphodactyla
stemborerPterophoridaeStenoptilia nelorum
stemborerPterophoridaeStenoptilia asclepiadeae
flowerborerPterophoridaeStenoptilia coprodactylus
unknownunknownPterophoridaeStenoptilia lutescens
flowerborerAdelidaeNemophora violellus
leafvagrantsummer generationAphididaeAphis fabae fabae
fruitborerTortricidaeGynnidomorpha permixtana
fruitborerAnthomyiidaeBotanophila gentianae
root collarvagrantAphididaeAphis orocantabrica
leafvagrantsummer generationAphididaeAphis fabae solanella
fruitgallMicrobotryalesMicrobotryum nannfeldtii
flowergalldoubtfulCecidomyiidaeDasineura gentianae
leafdownPeronosporalesPeronospora gentianae
leafleaf spotCapnodialesCladosporium gentianae
leafgallAphididaeAphis gentianae
leafminerAgromyzidaeChromatomyia gentianae
leafminerAgromyzidaeChromatomyia gentianella
leafminerAgromyzidaeChromatomyia gentii
leafminerAgromyzidaeChromatomyia hoppiella
leafminerAgromyzidaeChromatomyia pseudogentii
leafminerAgromyzidaeChromatomyia skuratowiczi
leafminerAgromyzidaeChromatomyia vernalis
leafminerAgromyzidaeLiriomyza amarellae
leafminerAgromyzidaeLiriomyza bryoniae
leafminerPterophoridaeStenoptilia zophodactylus
leafpustuleChytridialesSynchytrium aureum
leafpustuleaecia uredinia teliaPuccinialesPuccinia gentianae
leafpustuleuredinia teliaPuccinialesUromyces gentianae
leafpustuleuredinia teliaPuccinialesCronartium flaccidum
leafvagrantsummer generationAphididaeAphis fabae
stemborerPterophoridaeStenoptilia pneumonanthes
stemgallAsterolecaniidaePlanchonia arabidis
root collargalldoubtfulCurculionidaeSmicronyx swertiae
systemicgallEriophyidaeAculus kerneri
unknownunknownCurculionidaeSmicronyx reichii


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


Last modified 17.ix.2021