Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

genus Gentiana

organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite
flower hidden Thripidae Thrips vulgatissimus
flower hidden Thripidae Thrips montanus
flower hidden Thripidae Taeniothrips picipes
flower hidden Thripidae Thrips trehernei
flower hidden Thripidae Thrips atratus
flower vagrant Thripidae Thrips mancosetosus
flower hidden Thripidae Frankliniella intonsa
flower hidden Thripidae Frankliniella pallida
stem borer Cerambycidae Agapanthia villosoviridescens
leaf vagrant Aphididae Metopeurum gentianae
root borer Pterophoridae Stenoptilia graphodactyla
leaf down Sclerotiniaceae Botrytis cinerea f. gentianae-asclepiadeae
leaf leaf spot Venturiaceae Venturia atriseda
leaf leaf spot Venturiaceae Venturia atriseda
leaf leaf spot Mycosphaerellaceae Septoria gentianicola
leaf leaf spot Cucurbitariaceae Pyrenochaeta gentianae
leaf leaf spot Phyllostictaceae Phyllosticta durmitorensis
leaf leaf spot Mycosphaerellaceae Septoria microsora
leaf leaf spot Phyllostictaceae Phyllosticta gentianellae
leaf leaf spot Capnodiales Ramularia evanida
fruit vagrant Lygaeidae Spilostethus saxatilis
leaf vagrant doubtful Lygaeidae Tropidothorax leucopterus
predator Miridae Dicyphus montandoni
leaf vagrant adult Curculionidae Otiorhynchus krattereri
leaf miner Agromyzidae Chromatomyia centaurii
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Lacanobia contigua
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Ceramica pisi
flower vagrant Noctuidae Elaphria venustula
flower vagrant Geometridae Eupithecia subumbrata
flower vagrant Geometridae Eupithecia satyrata
fruit vagrant Geometridae Perizoma juracolaria
flower vagrant Geometridae Mesotype didymata
fruit vagrant Geometridae Perizoma obsoletata
flower vagrant younger larva Lycaenidae Phengaris rebeli
leaf vagrant doubtful Nymphalidae Melitaea varia
leaf vagrant Nymphalidae Euphydryas aurinia
flower vagrant younger larva Lycaenidae Phengaris alcon
leaf vagrant Tenthredinidae Tenthredo atra
leaf vagrant Tenthredinidae Tenthredo propinqua
leaf vagrant Thripidae Thrips gentluteae
flower hidden Thripidae Thrips robustus
flower gall Eriophyidae Eriophyes gentianae
leaf hidden Pyralidae Udea alpinalis
leaf hidden Tortricidae Clepsis senecionana
leaf miner younger larva Tortricidae Cnephasia asseclana
leaf hidden older larva Tortricidae Cnephasia asseclana
leaf hidden Tortricidae Cnephasia incertana
fruit borer Tortricidae Falseuncaria ruficiliana
leaf hidden Tortricidae Argyrotaenia ljungiana
flower hidden Tortricidae Endothenia marginana
root collar borer Tortricidae Aethes aurofasciana
leaf vagrant Eriophyidae Epitrimerus gentianae
stem borer Pterophoridae Stenoptilia nelorum
stem borer Pterophoridae Stenoptilia asclepiadeae
flower borer Pterophoridae Stenoptilia coprodactylus
unknown unknown Pterophoridae Stenoptilia lutescens
flower borer Adelidae Nemophora violellus
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Aphis fabae fabae
fruit borer Tortricidae Gynnidomorpha permixtana
fruit borer Anthomyiidae Botanophila gentianae
root collar vagrant Aphididae Aphis orocantabrica
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Aphis fabae solanella
fruit gall Microbotryales Microbotryum nannfeldtii
flower gall doubtful Cecidomyiidae Dasineura gentianae
leaf down Peronosporales Peronospora gentianae
leaf leaf spot Capnodiales Cladosporium gentianae
leaf gall Aphididae Aphis gentianae
leaf miner Agromyzidae Chromatomyia gentianae
leaf miner Agromyzidae Chromatomyia gentianella
leaf miner Agromyzidae Chromatomyia gentii
leaf miner Agromyzidae Chromatomyia hoppiella
leaf miner Agromyzidae Chromatomyia pseudogentii
leaf miner Agromyzidae Chromatomyia skuratowiczi
leaf miner Agromyzidae Chromatomyia vernalis
leaf miner Agromyzidae Liriomyza amarellae
leaf miner Agromyzidae Liriomyza bryoniae
leaf miner Pterophoridae Stenoptilia zophodactylus
leaf pustule Chytridiales Synchytrium aureum
leaf pustule aecia uredinia telia Pucciniales Puccinia gentianae
leaf pustule uredinia telia Pucciniales Uromyces gentianae
leaf pustule uredinia telia Pucciniales Cronartium flaccidum
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Aphis fabae
stem borer Pterophoridae Stenoptilia pneumonanthes
stem gall Asterolecaniidae Planchonia arabidis
root collar gall doubtful Curculionidae Smicronyx swertiae
systemic gall Eriophyidae Aculus kerneri
unknown unknown Curculionidae Smicronyx reichii


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot: discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


Last modified 8.xi.2023