Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Galeopsis tetrahit

common hemp-nettle

synonym: Tetrahit nodosum

organparasitic modestagenotetaxonomic groupparasite
leafvagrantTingidaeTingis pilosa
rootborerCurculionidaeThamiocolus sahlbergi
flowerhiddenThripidaeThrips flavus
leafscaleAleyrodidaeAleyrodes lonicerae
leafvagrantChrysomelidaeCassida viridis
rootvagrantChrysomelidaeLongitarsus kutscherai
leafvagrantChrysomelidaeChrysolina fastuosa
leafvagrantTenthredinidaeTenthredo silensis
stemborerlarvaCurculionidaeCoeliastes lamii
stemborerlarvaCurculionidaeDatonychus angulosus
stemvagrantAphididaeMacrosiphum euphorbiellum
stemborerAgromyzidaeMelanagromyza tschirnhausi
stemminerAgromyzidaeOphiomyia labiatarum
leafvagrantAphididaeAphis gossypii
leafvagrantsummer generationAphididaeAphis frangulae
systemicborerAnguinidaeDitylenchus dipsaci
flowergallCecidomyiidaeDasineura galeopsis
flowergallCecidomyiidaeDasineura tetrahit
leafdownErysiphalesNeoërysiphe galeopsidis
leafdownPeronosporalesPeronospora galeopsidis
leafleaf spotCapnodialesSeptoria galeopsidis
leafleaf spotDiaporthalesAscochyta lamiorum
leafminerAgromyzidaeAmauromyza labiatarum
leafminerAgromyzidaeAmauromyza lamii
leafminerAgromyzidaeLiriomyza bryoniae
leafminermainAgromyzidaeLiriomyza eupatorii
leafminerAgromyzidaeLiriomyza strigata
leafminerChrysomelidaeApteropeda orbiculata
leafminerChrysomelidaeDibolia depressiuscula
leafpustuleChytridialesSynchytrium aureum
leafpustuleaeciaPuccinialesPuccinia isiacae
leafvagrantsummer generationmainAphididaeCryptomyzus galeopsidis
leafvagrantsummer generationAphididaeMyzus padellus
rootgallMeloidogynidaeMeloidogyne hapla
rootgallUstilaginalesMelanotaenium jaapii
leafvagrantsummer generationrarelyAphididaeCryptomyzus korschelti
leafvagrantsummer generationAphididaeAphis frangulae beccabungae


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


Last modified 5.xii.2020