organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite
leaf vagrant spring generation Pterophoridae Capperia trichodactyla
flower vagrant summer generation Pterophoridae Capperia trichodactyla
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Brachycaudus helichrysi
stem miner Agromyzidae Ophiomyia labiatarum
leaf vagrant doubtful Aphididae Aphis ballotae
leaf down Erysiphales Leveillula duriaei
leaf down Erysiphales Neoërysiphe galeopsidis
leaf leaf spot Capnodiales Ramularia lamii
leaf miner Agromyzidae Liriomyza bryoniae
leaf miner Agromyzidae Liriomyza strigata
leaf miner Agromyzidae Amauromyza labiatarum
leaf miner Agromyzidae Amauromyza leonuri
leaf miner Chrysomelidae Dibolia occultans
leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora ballotella
leaf pustule aecia Pucciniales Puccinia stipina
leaf vagrant summer generation rarely Aphididae Cryptomyzus ribis
leaf vagrant Eriophyidae Aceria leonuri
root gall Heteroderidae Heterodera trifolii
leaf vagrant Aphididae Cryptomyzus ballotae
leaf vagrant Aphididae Cryptomyzus leonuri
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Aphis frangulae


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


mod 5.ix.2019