Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Ballota nigra

black horehound

synonym: Ballota nigra subsp. meridionalis

organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite
leaf vagrant adult Curculionidae Neoglanis palumbarius
flower hidden Phlaeothripidae Neoheegeria biroi
flower hidden Thripidae Taeniothrips picipes
leaf vagrant Tingidae Tingis pilosa
root vagrant doubtful Chrysomelidae Longitarsus reichei
leaf leaf spot Didymellaceae Ascochyta lamiorum
leaf leaf spot Mycosphaerellaceae Septoria balloticola
leaf leaf spot Capnodiales Ramularia lamii var. minor
root vagrant Cydnidae Tritomegas bicolor
root vagrant Cydnidae Tritomegas sexmaculatus
seeds vagrant Lygaeidae Raglius alboacuminatus
leaf vagrant rarely Piesmatidae Piesma capitatum
leaf vagrant Miridae Macrotylus horvathi
leaf vagrant Pentatomidae Eysarcoris venustissimus
root scale Rhizoecidae Rhizoecus albidus
leaf miner Agromyzidae Amauromyza leonuri
stem borer Cerambycidae Agapanthiola leucaspis
root collar borer Cerambycidae Pilemia hirsutula
leaf vagrant doubtful Noctuidae Athetis lepigone
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Diachrysia chrysitis
flower vagrant Geometridae Perizoma alchemillata
leaf hidden Pyralidae Udea fulvalis
leaf hidden Hesperiidae Carcharodus baeticus
leaf hidden Hesperiidae Carcharodus orientalis
leaf hidden Crambidae Ecpyrrhorrhoe rubiginalis
leaf vagrant Cicadellidae Eupteryx florida
leaf vagrant Aphididae Aphis ballotae
flower borer Nitidulidae Stachygethes ruficornis
leaf vagrant Chrysomelidae Chrysolina bankii
root borer Curculionidae Thamiocolus niveus
root vagrant Chrysomelidae Longitarsus minusculus
root vagrant Chrysomelidae Longitarsus ballotae
leaf vagrant Chrysomelidae Chrysolina polita
leaf vagrant Chrysomelidae Chrysolina fastuosa
leaf vagrant rarely Pterophoridae Wheeleria spilodactylus
leaf vagrant Eriophyidae Aculops ballotae
leaf vagrant Eriophyidae Aculus karadagensis
flower borer younger larva Adelidae Nemophora fasciella
root borer Sesiidae Chamaesphecia mysiniformis
root collar borer Sesiidae Chamaesphecia annellata
leaf miner Chrysomelidae Dibolia depressiuscula
leaf miner doubtful Chrysomelidae Dibolia cynoglossi
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Aphis nasturtii
flower borer Tephritidae Aciura coryli
leaf bud gall Cecidomyiidae Contarinia ballotae
leaf down Erysiphales Leveillula duriaei
leaf down Erysiphales Neoërysiphe galeopsidis
leaf miner main Agromyzidae Amauromyza labiatarum
leaf miner Agromyzidae Amauromyza lamii
leaf miner Agromyzidae Amauromyza morionella
leaf miner Agromyzidae Liriomyza strigata
leaf miner Agromyzidae Phytomyza salviae
leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora ballotella
leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora lineolea
leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora ochripennella
leaf vagrant rarely Aphididae Cryptomyzus alboapicalis
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Cryptomyzus galeopsidis
stem vagrant Aphididae Brachycaudus ballotae
leaf vagrant main Aphididae Cryptomyzus ballotae


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot: discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


Last modified 22.xi.2023