Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Marrubium peregrinum

synonym: Marrubium candidissimum, civice, creticum, praecox

organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite
flower hidden Phlaeothripidae Haplothrips marrubiicola
leaf vagrant Thripidae Thrips linarius
leaf vagrant Pterophoridae Wheeleria obsoletus
leaf leaf spot Mycosphaerellaceae Ramularia marrubii
root vagrant Cydnidae Tritomegas sexmaculatus
leaf hidden Hesperiidae Carcharodus orientalis
leaf vagrant Cicadellidae Platymetopius henribauti
unknown unknown Curculionidae Thamiocolus nubeculosus
unknown unknown doubtful Curculionidae Datonychus scabrirostris
flower borer Nitidulidae Stachygethes nanus
root vagrant Chrysomelidae Longitarsus ballotae
root borer Sesiidae Chamaesphecia oxybeliformis
leaf down Erysiphales Leveillula duriaei
leaf down Erysiphales Neoërysiphe galeopsidis
leaf gall Eriophyidae Aceria onychia
leaf miner Agromyzidae Amauromyza morionella
leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora ballotella


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot: discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


Last modified 12.xi.2023