Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Marrubium vulgare

white horehound

organparasitic modestagenotetaxonomic groupparasite
leafleaf spotMycosphaerellaceaeRamularia marrubii
leafvagrantMiridaeBrachycoleus sexvittatus
leafvagrantPentatomidaeEysarcoris venustissimus
rootvagrantCydnidaeTritomegas sexmaculatus
leafpredatorMiridaeDeraeocoris ribauti
root collarborerCerambycidaePilemia hirsutula
leafvagrantNoctuidaeDiachrysia chrysitis
unknownunknownCrambidaeEcpyrrhorrhoe diffusalis
leafhiddenHesperiidaeCarcharodus baeticus
leafvagrantCicadellidaePlatymetopius dorsofenestratus
leafvagrantTingidaeTingis marrubii
flowerhiddenPhlaeothripidaeHaplothrips marrubiicola
flowerborerNitidulidaeStachygethes nanus
flowerborerNitidulidaeStachygethes villosus
flowerborerNitidulidaeStachygethes nigerrimus
leafvagrantChrysomelidaeChrysolina bankii
rootvagrantChrysomelidaeLongitarsus ballotae
rootvagrantChrysomelidaeLongitarsus ordinatus
fruitborerTortricidaeEndothenia pauperculana
leafhiddenCrambidaeAnania hortulata
leafvagrantPterophoridaeWheeleria spilodactylus
leafvagrantspring generationPterophoridaeCapperia fusca
flowervagrantsummer generationPterophoridaeCapperia fusca
rootborerSesiidaeChamaesphecia oxybeliformis
rootborerSesiidaeChamaesphecia mysiniformis
leafminerChrysomelidaeDibolia depressiuscula
leafvagrantAphididaeAphis ballotae
leafdownErysiphalesLeveillula duriaei
leafdownErysiphalesNeoërysiphe galeopsidis
leafminerAgromyzidaeAmauromyza labiatarum
leafminerAgromyzidaeAmauromyza morionella
leafminerBuprestidaeTrachys goberti
leafminerChrysomelidaeDibolia cynoglossi
leafminerColeophoridaeColeophora ballotella
leafminerColeophoridaeColeophora lineolea
leafvagrantAphididaeCryptomyzus ballotae
leafminerColeophoridaeColeophora onopordiella
leafvagrantsummer generationAphididaeAphis frangulae
leafvagrantsummer generationAphididaeCryptomyzus galeopsidis


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


Last modified 23.vii.2022