Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Stachys officinalis


synonym: Betonica officinalis; Stachys betonica Benth.. monieri

organparasitic modestagenotetaxonomic groupparasite
leafleaf spotMycosphaerellaceaeRamularia robiciana
leafleaf spotCapnodialesRamularia lamii var. minor
leafvagrantTingidaeHyalochiton syrmiensis
leafminerAgromyzidaeAmauromyza leonuri
flowervagrantGeometridaePerizoma alchemillata
leafhiddenHesperiidaeCarcharodus floccifera
leafhiddenHesperiidaeCarcharodus orientalis
leafhiddenCrambidaeEcpyrrhorrhoe rubiginalis
leafvagrantCicadellidaeEmelyanoviana mollicula
leafvagrantCicadellidaeEupteryx lelievrei
rootvagrantChrysomelidaeLongitarsus ordinatus
flowerhiddenThripidaeFrankliniella occidentalis
flowerhiddenThripidaeTaeniothrips picipes
flowerhiddenThripidaeThrips atratus
flowerhiddenThripidaeThrips brevicornis
flowerborerNitidulidaeLamiogethes persicus
rootborerCurculionidaeThamiocolus pubicollis
rootvagrantChrysomelidaeLongitarsus minusculus
leafvagrantTenthredinidaePachyprotasis rapae
leafhiddenCrambidaeAnania stachydalis
leafmineryounger larvaTortricidaeCnephasia stephensiana
leafhiddenolder larvaTortricidaeCnephasia stephensiana
rootborerdoubtfulTortricidaeEndothenia oblongana
flowerhiddenTortricidaeEndothenia marginana
stemborerdoubtfulTortricidaeEndothenia nigricostana
unknownunknownPterophoridaeCapperia hellenica
flowerboreryounger larvaAdelidaeNemophora prodigellus
leafvagrantolder larvaAdelidaeNemophora prodigellus
leafvagrantsummer generationAphididaeCryptomyzus heinzei
stemborerAgromyzidaeMelanagromyza tschirnhausi
stemminerAgromyzidaeOphiomyia labiatarum
systemicgallEriophyidaeAceria solida
flowergallMicrobotryalesMicrobotryum betonicae
leafdownErysiphalesNeoërysiphe galeopsidis
leafdownPeronosporalesPeronospora stachydis
leafminerAgromyzidaeAmauromyza labiatarum
leafminerAgromyzidaeAmauromyza morionella
leafminerChrysomelidaeApteropeda orbiculata
leafminerChrysomelidaeDibolia foersteri
leafminerColeophoridaeColeophora auricella
leafminerColeophoridaeColeophora ballotella
leafminerColeophoridaeColeophora lineolea
leafminerColeophoridaeColeophora ochripennella
leafminerdoubtfulColeophoridaeColeophora onopordiella
leafminerdoubtfulColeophoridaeColeophora pennella
leafminerColeophoridaeColeophora wockeella
leafminerMomphidaeStagmatophora heydeniella
leafpustuleChytridialesSynchytrium aureum
leafpustuleteliaPuccinialesPuccinia betonicae
leafvagrantsummer generationAphididaeCryptomyzus korschelti
stemgallAsterolecaniidaePlanchonia arabidis
stemgallCurculionidaeThamnurgus kaltenbachii
leafgallAphididaeAphis stachydis


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot: discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


Last modified 30.vii.2022