Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Stachys officinalis

betony

synonym: Betonica officinalis; Stachys betonica Benth.. monieri

organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite
leaf leaf spot Mycosphaerellaceae Ramularia robiciana
leaf leaf spot Capnodiales Ramularia lamii var. minor
leaf vagrant Tingidae Hyalochiton syrmiensis
leaf miner Agromyzidae Amauromyza leonuri
flower vagrant Geometridae Perizoma alchemillata
leaf hidden Hesperiidae Carcharodus floccifera
leaf hidden Hesperiidae Carcharodus orientalis
leaf hidden Crambidae Ecpyrrhorrhoe rubiginalis
leaf vagrant Cicadellidae Emelyanoviana mollicula
leaf vagrant Cicadellidae Eupteryx lelievrei
root vagrant Chrysomelidae Longitarsus ordinatus
flower hidden Thripidae Frankliniella occidentalis
flower hidden Thripidae Taeniothrips picipes
flower hidden Thripidae Thrips atratus
flower hidden Thripidae Thrips brevicornis
flower borer Nitidulidae Lamiogethes persicus
root borer Curculionidae Thamiocolus pubicollis
root vagrant Chrysomelidae Longitarsus minusculus
leaf vagrant Tenthredinidae Pachyprotasis rapae
leaf hidden Crambidae Anania stachydalis
leaf miner younger larva Tortricidae Cnephasia stephensiana
leaf hidden older larva Tortricidae Cnephasia stephensiana
root borer doubtful Tortricidae Endothenia oblongana
flower hidden Tortricidae Endothenia marginana
stem borer doubtful Tortricidae Endothenia nigricostana
unknown unknown Pterophoridae Capperia hellenica
flower borer younger larva Adelidae Nemophora prodigellus
leaf vagrant older larva Adelidae Nemophora prodigellus
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Cryptomyzus heinzei
stem borer Agromyzidae Melanagromyza tschirnhausi
stem miner Agromyzidae Ophiomyia labiatarum
systemic gall Eriophyidae Aceria solida
flower gall Microbotryales Microbotryum betonicae
leaf down Erysiphales Neoërysiphe galeopsidis
leaf down Peronosporales Peronospora stachydis
leaf miner Agromyzidae Amauromyza labiatarum
leaf miner Agromyzidae Amauromyza morionella
leaf miner Chrysomelidae Apteropeda orbiculata
leaf miner Chrysomelidae Dibolia foersteri
leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora auricella
leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora ballotella
leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora lineolea
leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora ochripennella
leaf miner doubtful Coleophoridae Coleophora onopordiella
leaf miner doubtful Coleophoridae Coleophora pennella
leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora wockeella
leaf miner Momphidae Stagmatophora heydeniella
leaf pustule Chytridiales Synchytrium aureum
leaf pustule telia Pucciniales Puccinia betonicae
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Cryptomyzus korschelti
stem gall Asterolecaniidae Planchonia arabidis
stem gall Curculionidae Thamnurgus kaltenbachii
leaf gall Aphididae Aphis stachydis

Organ

the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.

PARASITIC MODE

borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot: discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.

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IMPORTANT

The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.

 

Last modified 30.vii.2022