Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Lycopus europaeus


organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite
seeds vagrant Carabidae Harpalus rufipes
seeds vagrant Carabidae Harpalus affinis
seeds vagrant Carabidae Amara littorea
leaf leaf spot Capnodiales Ramularia lamii
leaf leaf spot Didymellaceae Ascochyta lamiorum
leaf vagrant Lygaeidae Heterogaster cathariae
predator Anthocoridae Orius minutus
predator Anthocoridae Orius majusculus
leaf vagrant Miridae Europiella alpina
leaf vagrant Crambidae Psammotis pulveralis
leaf scale Aleyrodidae Aleyrodes lonicerae
leaf vagrant doubtful Noctuidae Athetis lepigone
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Diachrysia chrysitis
root collar borer Tortricidae Endothenia quadrimaculana
leaf vagrant Cicadellidae Eupteryx florida
leaf vagrant Cicadellidae Eupteryx thoulessi
root vagrant Chrysomelidae Longitarsus fulgens
leaf vagrant Chrysomelidae Cassida viridis
leaf vagrant adult Chrysomelidae Neocrepidodera brevicollis
root vagrant Chrysomelidae Longitarsus lycopi
leaf vagrant Chrysomelidae Chrysolina polita
leaf vagrant Chrysomelidae Chrysolina herbacea
leaf vagrant Chrysomelidae Chrysolina graminis
leaf vagrant Tenthredinidae Rhogogaster chlorosoma
leaf vagrant Tenthredinidae Tenthredo thompsoni
leaf vagrant doubtful Tenthredinidae Athalia scutellariae
leaf vagrant Tenthredinidae Pachyprotasis antennata
leaf hidden Tortricidae Orthotaenia undulana
leaf hidden Crambidae Anania lancealis
leaf hidden Crambidae Pyrausta aurata
leaf hidden Tortricidae Syndemis musculana
stem miner Opostegidae Pseudopostega auritella
flower borer Tortricidae Cochylidia rupicola
stem borer Tortricidae Phalonidia manniana
stem borer larva Curculionidae Datonychus arquata
stem borer larva Curculionidae Datonychus angulosus
stem borer larva Curculionidae Datonychus melanostictus
stem borer Agromyzidae Melanagromyza tschirnhausi
leaf down Erysiphales Golovinomyces biocellatus
leaf miner Agromyzidae Amauromyza labiatarum
leaf miner Agromyzidae Phytomyza lycopi
leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora albitarsella
leaf miner Sciaridae Phytosciara halterata
leaf pustule aecia uredinia telia Pucciniales Puccinia menthae
leaf vagrant Eriophyidae Aculops clinopodii
leaf vagrant Eriophyidae Aculops hamatus
root collar vagrant summer generation Aphididae Ovatus insitus


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot: discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


Last modified 27.x.2023