Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Melissa officinalis


organparasitic modestagenotetaxonomic groupparasite
leafvagrantLygaeidaeHeterogaster cathariae
seedsvagrantLygaeidaeScolopostethus affinis
leafvagrantCoreidaeSyromastus rhombeus
predatorNabidaeHimacerus mirmicoides
stemscaleCoccidaeCeroplastes sinensis
leafvagrantErebidaeOrgyia antiqua
leafvagrantCicadellidaeEupteryx atropunctata
leafvagrantCicadellidaeEupteryx collina
leafvagrantCicadellidaeEupteryx stachydearum
leafvagrantCicadellidaeEupteryx zelleri
leafvagrantCicadellidaeEupteryx florida
leafvagrantCicadellidaeEupteryx decemnotata
flowerhiddenThripidaeThrips hawaiiensis
flowerhiddenPhlaeothripidaeHaplothrips gowdeyi
unknownunknownPhlaeothripidaeHaplothrips reuteri
leafvagrantChrysomelidaeChrysolina bankii
rootvagrantChrysomelidaeLongitarsus obliteratus
rootvagrantChrysomelidaeLongitarsus lycopi
leafvagrantChrysomelidaeChrysolina coerulans
stemvagrantFlatidaeMetcalfa pruinosa
leafvagrantTenthredinidaeTenthredo marginella
leafvagrantTenthredinidaeTenthredo atra
leafhiddenCrambidaePyrausta aurata
leafhiddenGelechiidaeAnasphaltis renigerellus
leafhiddenTortricidaeArgyrotaenia ljungiana
leafvagrantsummer generationAphididaeAphis fabae
leafdownErysiphalesGolovinomyces monardae
leafdownErysiphalesNeoërysiphe galeopsidis
leafgallsummer generationAphididaeOvatus crataegarius
leafminerAgromyzidaeAmauromyza labiatarum
leafminerColeophoridaeColeophora albitarsella
leafvagrantAphididaeAulacorthum solani
leafpustuleaecia uredinia teliaPuccinialesPuccinia menthae


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


Last modified 14.v.2022