Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

genus Prunella

organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite
leaf vagrant Thripidae Thrips fuscipennis
root vagrant doubtful Chrysomelidae Longitarsus reichei
leaf leaf spot Mycosphaerellaceae Ramularia brunellae
leaf leaf spot Gnomoniaceae Asteroma brunellae
leaf leaf spot Mycosphaerellaceae Septoria brunellae
leaf leaf spot Capnodiales Ramularia lamii var. minor
leaf leaf spot Didymellaceae Ascochyta lamiorum
leaf leaf spot Dothideomycetes Asteromella prunellae
root vagrant adult Curculionidae Otiorhynchus uncinatus
stem pustule incertae sedis Rosenscheldia abundans
leaf hidden doubtful Crambidae Pyrausta purpuralis
flower vagrant Geometridae Eupithecia satyrata
leaf vagrant Cicadellidae Eupteryx vittata
leaf vagrant Cicadellidae Eupteryx notata
leaf vagrant Tingidae Tingis geniculata
root vagrant Chrysomelidae Longitarsus nanus
flower hidden Thripidae Taeniothrips picipes
flower hidden Thripidae Thrips flavus
flower borer doubtful Nitidulidae Lamiogethes bidens
flower borer Nitidulidae Sagittogethes umbrosus
root vagrant Chrysomelidae Longitarsus obliteratus
root vagrant Chrysomelidae Longitarsus lycopi
leaf hidden Crambidae Nomophila noctuella
leaf miner younger larva Tortricidae Cnephasia asseclana
leaf hidden older larva Tortricidae Cnephasia asseclana
flower borer Pterophoridae Amblyptilia punctidactyla
root borer larva Apionidae Squamapion cineraceum
leaf miner Chrysomelidae Dibolia occultans
stem miner Agromyzidae Ophiomyia labiatarum
leaf bud gall Cecidomyiidae Dasineura brunellae
leaf bud gall Cecidomyiidae Macrolabis brunellae
leaf down Erysiphales Neoërysiphe galeopsidis
leaf gall Aphididae Aphis brunellae
leaf miner doubtful Agromyzidae Phytomyza abdita
leaf miner Agromyzidae Amauromyza labiatarum
leaf miner Chrysomelidae Apteropeda globosa
leaf miner Chrysomelidae Apteropeda orbiculata
leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora albitarsella
leaf miner Cosmopterigidae Vulcaniella extremella
leaf miner Curculionidae Orthochaetes insignis
leaf miner Nepticulidae Glaucolepis headleyella
leaf miner Psychidae Apterona helicoidella
leaf miner Sciaridae Phytosciara halterata
leaf pustule Chytridiales Synchytrium aureum
leaf pustule aecia Pucciniales Puccinia brunellarum-moliniae
leaf vagrant Eriophyidae Aculops clinopodii
leaf vagrant Eriophyidae Epitrimerus jaceae
leaf vagrant Eriophyidae Aculus prunellae
inquiline Cecidomyiidae Ametrodiplosis nivea
leaf vagrant Aphididae Aulacorthum circumflexum
leaf vagrant Aphididae Myzus ornatus
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Brachycaudus helichrysi


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot: discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


Last modified 20.i.2023