Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

genus Prunella

organparasitic modestagenotetaxonomic groupparasite
rootvagrantadultCurculionidaeOtiorhynchus uncinatus
stempustuleincertae sedisRosenscheldia abundans
leafhiddendoubtfulCrambidaePyrausta purpuralis
flowervagrantGeometridaeEupithecia satyrata
leafvagrantCicadellidaeEupteryx vittata
leafvagrantCicadellidaeEupteryx notata
leafvagrantTingidaeTingis geniculata
rootvagrantChrysomelidaeLongitarsus nanus
flowerhiddenThripidaeTaeniothrips picipes
flowerhiddenThripidaeThrips flavus
flowerborerdoubtfulNitidulidaeLamiogethes bidens
flowerborerNitidulidaeSagittogethes umbrosus
rootvagrantChrysomelidaeLongitarsus obliteratus
rootvagrantChrysomelidaeLongitarsus lycopi
leafhiddenCrambidaeNomophila noctuella
leafmineryounger larvaTortricidaeCnephasia asseclana
leafhiddenolder larvaTortricidaeCnephasia asseclana
flowerborerPterophoridaeAmblyptilia punctidactyla
rootborerlarvaApionidaeSquamapion cineraceum
leafminerChrysomelidaeDibolia occultans
stemminerAgromyzidaeOphiomyia labiatarum
leaf budgallCecidomyiidaeDasineura brunellae
leaf budgallCecidomyiidaeMacrolabis brunellae
leafdownErysiphalesNeoërysiphe galeopsidis
leafgallAphididaeAphis brunellae
leafminerdoubtfulAgromyzidaePhytomyza abdita
leafminerAgromyzidaeAmauromyza labiatarum
leafminerChrysomelidaeApteropeda globosa
leafminerChrysomelidaeApteropeda orbiculata
leafminerColeophoridaeColeophora albitarsella
leafminerCosmopterigidaeVulcaniella extremella
leafminerCurculionidaeOrthochaetes insignis
leafminerNepticulidaeGlaucolepis headleyella
leafminerPsychidaeApterona helicoidella
leafminerSciaridaePhytosciara halterata
leafpustuleChytridialesSynchytrium aureum
leafpustuleaeciaPuccinialesPuccinia brunellarum-moliniae
leafvagrantEriophyidaeAculops clinopodii
leafvagrantEriophyidaeEpitrimerus jaceae
leafvagrantEriophyidaeAculus prunellae
inquilineCecidomyiidaeAmetrodiplosis nivea
leafvagrantAphididaeAulacorthum circumflexum
leafvagrantAphididaeMyzus ornatus
leafvagrantsummer generationAphididaeBrachycaudus helichrysi


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


Last modified 12.xii.2021