Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

gallers on genus Satureja

Dichotomous table for gallers on Satureja

(incl. Acinos, Calamintha, Clinopodium, Micromeria)

by Hans Roskam

1a On axial parts of shoots, shoot tips, swollen buds or leaves => 2

1b Flowers disfigured; calyx swollen; corolla, stamens and ovaries aborted. Clinopodium acinos, Micromeria graeca, Clinopodium vulgare: Unidentified gall mite

1c Flowers disfigured. Micromeria graeca: Aceria saturejae

1d Calyx inflated, flower disfigured or aborted. Micromeria graeca subsp. fruticulosa: Asphondylia sp.

2a Malformation of many leaves on shoot tips, terminally on shoots or single leaves => 6

2b Galls on axial parts of shoots, sometimes encroaching onto leaves => 3

3a Swollen buds contain solitary gall midge larvae. Clinopodium alpinum, nepeta subsp. glandulosum. Asphondylia calaminthae

3b Shoot axis and underside of leaves long-haired white-erineum. Inflorescence stunted, especially along venation. Clinopodium vulgare: Unidentified gall mite

4a Causers occur inside galls => 5

4b Stem ± spindle-shaped or bulging, with several rimmed, irregular depressions containing the inducer. Clinopodium acinos: Planchonia arabidis

5a Stem with rotund to acuminated, egg-shaped swelling, up to 5 mm long, tough- and smooth-walled. Containing a single lemon-yellow larva. Clinopodium acinos, vulgare: Squamapion vicinum

5b Complete plant stunted. Stem distinctly shortened, spongy, swollen. Side shoots of more developed plants and basal leaf parts similarly disfigured to varied extent. Satureja hortensis: Ditylenchus dipsaci

6a Malformation of many leaves on shoot tips or terminally on shoots => 8

6b Localised galls on leaves, sometimes on basal young shoots => 7

7a Galls less than 1 mm across, multi-cellular, wart-shaped, ± golden-yellow; usually many on leaf underside, sometimes on petioles. Clinopodium vulgare: Synchytrium aureum

7b Leaf blades with yellowish rotund pads, several mm long, on leaf underside; their surface bearing aecia. Similar, more spindle-shaped bulges on leaf veins and -stalks as well as on shortened basal parts of shoot axis, sometimes strongly swollen and distorted. Clinopodium spp.; Micromeria hyssopifolia, varia; Satureja hortensis, thymbra: Puccinia menthae

7c Lower leaves turn brown and wither. On the underside a purple fungal down, consisting of vertical conidiophores that apically several times are dichotomously branching, each branch ending in a globular conidium. S. hortensis: Peronospora saturejae-hortensis

8a Curling of leaves caused by aphids or spittlebugs => 9

8b Leaves and generative primordia on shoot tip severely stunted, accumulated, tuft-like; ± disfigured and densely white pubescent. Clinopodium acinos, vulgare: Unidentified gall mite

9a Malformations caused by aphids => 10

9b Some internodes of stem shortened, sometimes ± bent. Leaves ± clustered, with several deflected over their tips, ± distorted, converging, nest-like, containing a froth-covered nymph. S. hortensis, montana: Philaenus spumarius

10a Terminal part of shoot axis ± shortened; side shoots variously stunted. Leaves ± clustered, curled, ± rolled inwards and downwards. Clinopodium acinos, grandiflorum, menthifolium, nepeta incl. subsp. glandulosum, vulgare: Aphis calaminthae

10b Leaf blade curled. Clinopodium acinos, menthifolium, vulgare: Aphis clinopodii

10c Similar malformations on Clinopodium vulgare: Aphis nepetae

10d Similar malformations on Satureja hortensis: Unidentified aphid

10e eaf blade swollen. Aphid green or yellow. Clinopodium alpinum, nepeta subsp. glandulosum: Aphis origani

Last modified 18.xi.2023