Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Fraxinus excelsior


synonym: Fraxinus aurea, heterophylla, monophylla, pendula

organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite
stem gall Nectriaceae Neonectria punicea
leaf leaf spot Mycosphaerellaceae Passalora fraxini
leaf leaf spot Pleurotremataceae Melomastia mastoidea
stem kanker Helotiaceae Hymenoscyphus fraxineus
leaf leaf spot Venturiaceae Fusicladium fraxini
stem kanker Nectriaceae Thyronectria aurigera
stem scale Coccidae Filippia follicularis
stem borer Cossidae Zeuzera pyrina
leaf predator Miridae Deraeocoris serenus
seeds vagrant Lygaeidae Graptopeltus lynceus
predator Miridae Campyloneura virgula
leaf vagrant Miridae Mermitelocerus schmidtii
leaf vagrant Pentatomidae Halyomorpha halys
leaf vagrant rarely Miridae Psallus falleni
leaf vagrant Miridae Psallus variabilis
leaf vagrant Miridae Closterotomus hedenborgi
predator Pentatomidae Pinthaeus sanguinipes
leaf vagrant Miridae Capsodes bicolor
leaf vagrant Miridae Phytocoris longipennis
leaf vagrant Miridae Closterotomus biclavatus
leaf vagrant Pentatomidae Mustha spinosula
leaf predator Miridae Deraeocoris flavilinea
leaf vagrant Miridae Brachynotocoris puncticornis
leaf vagrant Miridae Psallus varians
leaf vagrant Miridae Psallus flavellus
leaf vagrant rarely Miridae Psallus perrisi
leaf vagrant Miridae Orthotylus tenellus
leaf vagrant Miridae Pseudoloxops coccineus
leaf vagrant Miridae Closterotomus fulvomaculatus
predator Miridae Deraeocoris lutescens
leaf vagrant Miridae Neolygus viridis
leaf vagrant Miridae Pinalitus cervinus
leaf vagrant doubtful Miridae Psallus vittatus
leaf vagrant Miridae Mermitelocerus schmidtii
leaf vagrant Miridae Psallus lepidus
predator Miridae Heterotoma planicornis
fruit vagrant rarely Pyrrhocoridae Pyrrhocoris apterus
predator Anthocoridae Anthocoris simulans
leaf vagrant Miridae Tropidosteptes pacificus
root vagrant larva Curculionidae Otiorhynchus tenebricosus
leaf vagrant Geometridae Abraxas pantaria
scale Diaspididae Diaspidiotus pyri
stem scale Diaspididae Diaspidiotus uvae
systemic scale Diaspididae Parlatoria oleae
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Naenia typica
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Anorthoa munda
stem borer rarely Cerambycidae Cerambyx cerdo
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Noctua fimbriata
stem borer Cecidomyiidae Xylodiplosis nigritarsis
stem borer Cecidomyiidae Xylodiplosis nigritarsis
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Melanchra persicariae
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Cosmia trapezina
flower vagrant Noctuidae Atethmia centrago
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Asteroscopus sphinx
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Amphipyra pyramidea
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Mormo maura
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Craniophora ligustri
leaf vagrant Erebidae Callimorpha dominula
leaf vagrant Erebidae Calliteara pudibunda
leaf vagrant Erebidae Euproctis similis
leaf vagrant Erebidae Euproctis chrysorrhoea
leaf vagrant Erebidae Arctia caja
leaf vagrant Geometridae Ectropis crepuscularia
leaf vagrant Geometridae Campaea margaritaria
leaf vagrant Lasiocampidae Poecilocampa populi
leaf vagrant Lasiocampidae Lasiocampa quercus
leaf vagrant Notodontidae Phalera bucephala
leaf vagrant Geometridae Ennomos fuscantaria
leaf vagrant Geometridae Selenia lunularia
leaf vagrant Geometridae Selenia tetralunaria
leaf vagrant Geometridae Odontopera bidentata
leaf vagrant Geometridae Colotois pennaria
leaf vagrant Geometridae Biston betularia
leaf vagrant Geometridae Phigalia pilosaria
leaf vagrant Geometridae Agriopis aurantiaria
leaf vagrant Geometridae Lycia hirtaria
leaf vagrant Geometridae Trichopteryx polycommata
flower vagrant Geometridae Eupithecia subfuscata
flower vagrant rarely Geometridae Eupithecia innotata
leaf vagrant Geometridae Chloroclysta siterata
leaf vagrant Geometridae Operophtera brumata
leaf vagrant Nymphalidae Euphydryas maturna
leaf vagrant Nymphalidae Euphydryas italica
leaf vagrant Geometridae Eupithecia exiguata
leaf vagrant Geometridae Apeira syringaria
leaf vagrant Geometridae Alsophila aescularia
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Lithophane semibrunnea
stem borer Curculionidae Platypus cylindrus
stem borer Cossidae Cossus cossus
leaf vagrant Sphingidae Sphinx ligustri
stem borer Buprestidae Agrilus convexicollis
stem borer Buprestidae Anthaxia thalassophila
stem borer Buprestidae Anthaxia podolica
stem borer Buprestidae Chrysobothris affinis
stem borer Buprestidae Agrilus graminis
leaf vagrant Cicadellidae Cicadella viridis
leaf vagrant Cicadellidae Igutettix oculatus
stem vagrant Issidae Issus muscaeformis
leaf vagrant Cicadellidae Fagocyba cruenta
stem borer Curculionidae Hylesinus crenatus
stem borer Curculionidae Hylesinus wachtli
stem borer Curculionidae Phloeotribus caucasicus
stem borer Curculionidae Xyleborinus attenuatus
stem borer Curculionidae Hylesinus toranio
stem borer Curculionidae Taphrorychus villifrons
stem borer Curculionidae Phloeotribus rhododactylus
stem borer Curculionidae Phloeotribus scarabaeoides
stem borer Curculionidae Xyleborus monographus
stem borer Curculionidae Hylesinus fraxini
stem borer rarely Curculionidae Scolytus scolytus
stem borer Curculionidae Xyleborinus saxesenii
stem borer Curculionidae Xyleborus dispar
leaf vagrant Tetranychidae Bryobia ulmophila
leaf vagrant Tetranychidae Eotetranychus pruni
leaf vagrant Tetranychidae Eotetranychus fraxini
leaf vagrant Curculionidae Stereonychus fraxini
flower hidden Thripidae Thrips flavus
flower hidden Thripidae Thrips minutissimus
leaf vagrant Thripidae Oxythrips halidayi
leaf vagrant main Thripidae Dendrothrips degeeri
leaf vagrant Tenthredinidae Eupareophora exarmata
leaf vagrant doubtful Tenthredinidae Aglaostigma nebulosum
leaf vagrant Tenthredinidae Rhogogaster punctulata
leaf vagrant Tenthredinidae Tenthredo vespa
leaf vagrant Tenthredinidae Pachyprotasis rapae
stem borer Pyralidae Euzophera pinguis
stem scale Diaspididae Diaspidiotus lenticularis
stem scale Coccidae Eulecanium tiliae
stem scale Coccidae Pulvinaria vitis
stem scale Diaspididae Pseudaulacaspis pentagona
leaf hidden Yponomeutidae Zelleria hepariella
fruit unknown doubtful Tortricidae Pammene ignorata
leaf hidden Tortricidae Hedya nubiferana
leaf hidden Ypsolophidae Ypsolopha parenthesella
stem borer Tortricidae Pammene suspectana
leaf hidden Tortricidae Eulia ministrana
leaf hidden Tortricidae Archips crataegana
leaf hidden Tortricidae Archips xylosteana
predator Anthocoridae Anthocoris amplicollis
leaf hidden Tortricidae Pandemis corylana
stem gall Hypocreales Neonectria ditissima
stem scale Diaspididae Diaspidiotus ostreaeformis
leaf hidden Tortricidae Philedonides lunana
fruit borer Tortricidae Pseudargyrotoza conwagana
leaf gall Eriophyidae Tegolophus califraxini
fruit gall rarely Curculionidae Lignyodes bischoffi
fruit borer larva Curculionidae Lignyodes enucleator
fruit borer larva Curculionidae Lignyodes suturatus
leaf vagrant Tenthredinidae Tomostethus nigritus
leaf scale Aleyrodidae Trialeurodes vaporariorum
leaf scale Aleyrodidae Siphoninus phillyreae
stem vagrant doubtful Aphididae Stomaphis graffii
leaf scale Coccidae Pulvinaria hydrangeae
stem scale Diaspididae Lepidosaphes ulmi
stem scale Pseudococcidae Phenacoccus aceris
stem borer Psilidae Chyliza leptogaster
stem borer Cecidomyiidae Resseliella quercivora
fruit gall Psyllidae Psyllopsis machinosus
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Aphis fabae
fruit borer Yponomeutidae Prays ruficeps
fruit gall Cecidomyiidae Contarinia marchali
fruit gall Cecidomyiidae Dasineura helenae
flower gall Eriophyidae Aceria fraxinivora
leaf bud gall summer generation Psyllidae Psyllopsis repens
leaf down Erysiphales Phyllactinia fraxini
leaf leaf spot Capnodiales Cladosporium fraxinicola
leaf gall spring generation Aphididae Prociphilus bumeliae
leaf gall spring generation Aphididae Prociphilus fraxini
leaf gall Cecidomyiidae Dasineura acrophila
leaf gall Cecidomyiidae Dasineura fraxinea
leaf gall Cecidomyiidae Dasineura fraxini
leaf gall Eriophyidae Aceria fraxinicola
leaf gall Eriophyidae Aculus epiphyllus
leaf gall Eriophyidae Aculus fraxini
leaf gall Psyllidae Psyllopsis discrepans
leaf gall Psyllidae Psyllopsis distinguenda
leaf gall Psyllidae Psyllopsis fraxini
leaf vagrant Psyllidae Psyllopsis fraxinicola
leaf gall spring generation Psyllidae Psyllopsis repens
leaf miner Agromyzidae Aulagromyza heringii
leaf miner Gracillariidae Caloptilia cuculipennella
leaf miner Gracillariidae Gracillaria syringella
leaf miner Yponomeutidae Prays fraxinella
leaf pustule Chytridiales Synchytrium aureum
leaf vagrant Eriophyidae Tegonotus collaris
stem gall Diaspididae Chionaspis salicis
stem gall Hypocreales Neonectria ditissima
stem gall Pseudomonadales Pseudomonas savastanoi pv fraxini
stem oviposition scar Lestidae Lestes viridis
unknown unknown Gracillariidae Gracillaria loriolella
stem scale Eriococcidae Pseudochermes fraxini
stem scale Coccidae Parthenolecanium corni


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot: discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


Last modified 10.xi.2022