Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Fraxinus ornus

manna ash

synonym: Fraxinus rotundifolia Lam.; Ornus europaeus

organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite
stem vagrant Flatidae Metcalfa pruinosa
leaf down Erysiphaceae Erysiphe salmonii
flower hidden Thripidae Thrips meridionalis
flower pustule Aeolothripidae Orothrips priesneri
leaf vagrant Thripidae Dendrothrips degeeri
leaf vagrant Thripidae Drepanothrips reuteri
flower hidden Thripidae Thrips nigropilosus
unknown unknown Phlaeothripidae Haplothrips andresi
flower predator Aeolothripidae Aeolothrips gloriosus
stem borer Buprestidae Anthaxia umbellatarum
dead wood borer Cerambycidae Xylotrechus stebbingi
stem borer Cerambycidae Tetrops starkii
dead wood borer Cerambycidae Callimus abdominalis
leaf scale Aleyrodidae Aleuroclava aucubae
leaf vagrant Tetranychidae Eotetranychus carpini
leaf vagrant Tetranychidae Tetranychus urticae
vagrant Curculionidae Otiorhynchus clavipes
leaf leaf spot Venturiaceae Fusicladium fraxini
leaf vagrant adult Curculionidae Polydrusus calabricus
predator Anthocoridae Orius minutus
predator Anthocoridae Orius niger
leaf vagrant Miridae Psallus quercus
leaf vagrant Miridae Pseudoloxops coccineus
leaf vagrant Miridae Psallus assimilis
leaf vagrant Miridae Orthotylus viridinervis
leaf scale Aleyrodidae Siphoninus phillyreae
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Asteroscopus syriaca
leaf vagrant Erebidae Lymantria dispar
leaf vagrant Lasiocampidae Malacosoma neustria
leaf hidden Tortricidae Archips podana
leaf vagrant Nymphalidae Euphydryas maturna
leaf hidden Tortricidae Archips xylosteana
stem borer Buprestidae Agrilus convexicollis
stem borer Buprestidae Anthaxia thalassophila
stem borer Buprestidae Anthaxia podolica
stem borer Buprestidae Agrilus graminis
leaf vagrant Cixiidae Hyalesthes scotti
stem borer Curculionidae Hylesinus wachtli
stem borer Curculionidae Phloeotribus muricatus
stem borer Curculionidae Hylesinus toranio
stem borer Curculionidae Xyleborinus saxesenii
leaf vagrant Tetranychidae Eotetranychus fraxini
leaf vagrant Curculionidae Stereonychus fraxini
leaf gall Eriophyidae Tegolophus califraxini
fruit gall rarely Curculionidae Lignyodes bischoffi
fruit borer larva Curculionidae Lignyodes suturatus
leaf vagrant Psyllidae Psyllopsis fraxinicola
fruit gall Cecidomyiidae Contarinia marchali
flower gall Eriophyidae Aceria fraxinivora
leaf bud gall summer generation Psyllidae Psyllopsis repens
leaf down Erysiphales Erysiphe syringae
leaf down Erysiphales Phyllactinia fraxini
leaf gall Cecidomyiidae Dasineura acrophila
leaf gall Cecidomyiidae Dasineura fraxini
leaf gall Cecidomyiidae Trigonodiplosis fraxini
leaf gall Eriophyidae Aceria fraxinicola
leaf gall Eriophyidae Aculus epiphyllus
leaf gall Eriophyidae Aculus fraxini
leaf gall Psyllidae Psyllopsis discrepans
leaf gall Psyllidae Psyllopsis fraxini
leaf gall Psyllidae Psyllopsis meliphila
leaf gall spring generation Psyllidae Psyllopsis repens
leaf miner Gracillariidae Caloptilia cuculipennella
stem vagrant Eriococcidae Pseudochermes fraxini
leaf miner Gracillariidae Gracillaria syringella
leaf miner Nepticulidae Etainia obtusa
leaf miner Yponomeutidae Prays fraxinella
leaf vagrant Eriophyidae Tegonotus collaris


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot: discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


Last modified 8.ii.2024