Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Fraxinus ornus

manna ash

synonym: Fraxinus rotundifolia Lam.; Ornus europaeus

organparasitic modestagenotetaxonomic groupparasite
leafleaf spotVenturiaceaeFusicladium fraxini
leafvagrantadultCurculionidaePolydrusus calabricus
predatorAnthocoridaeOrius minutus
predatorAnthocoridaeOrius niger
leafvagrantMiridaePsallus quercus
leafvagrantMiridaePseudoloxops coccineus
leafvagrantMiridaePsallus assimilis
leafvagrantMiridaeOrthotylus viridinervis
leafscaleAleyrodidaeSiphoninus phillyreae
leafvagrantNoctuidaeAsteroscopus syriaca
leafvagrantErebidaeLymantria dispar
leafvagrantLasiocampidaeMalacosoma neustria
leafhiddenTortricidaeArchips podana
leafvagrantNymphalidaeEuphydryas maturna
leafhiddenTortricidaeArchips xylosteana
stemborerBuprestidaeAgrilus convexicollis
stemborerBuprestidaeAnthaxia thalassophila
stemborerBuprestidaeAnthaxia podolica
stemborerBuprestidaeAgrilus graminis
leafvagrantCixiidaeHyalesthes scotti
stemborerCurculionidaeHylesinus wachtli
stemborerCurculionidaePhloeotribus muricatus
stemborerCurculionidaeHylesinus toranio
stemborerCurculionidaeXyleborinus saxesenii
leafvagrantTetranychidaeEotetranychus fraxini
leafvagrantCurculionidaeStereonychus fraxini
leafgallEriophyidaeTegolophus califraxini
fruitgallrarelyCurculionidaeLignyodes bischoffi
fruitborerlarvaCurculionidaeLignyodes suturatus
leafvagrantPsyllidaePsyllopsis fraxinicola
fruitgallCecidomyiidaeContarinia marchali
flowergallEriophyidaeAceria fraxinivora
leaf budgallsummer generationPsyllidaePsyllopsis repens
leafdownErysiphalesErysiphe syringae
leafdownErysiphalesPhyllactinia fraxini
leafgallCecidomyiidaeDasineura acrophila
leafgallCecidomyiidaeDasineura fraxini
leafgallCecidomyiidaeTrigonodiplosis fraxini
leafgallEriophyidaeAceria fraxinicola
leafgallEriophyidaeAculus epiphyllus
leafgallEriophyidaeAculus fraxini
leafgallPsyllidaePsyllopsis discrepans
leafgallPsyllidaePsyllopsis fraxini
leafgallPsyllidaePsyllopsis meliphila
leafgallspring generationPsyllidaePsyllopsis repens
leafminerGracillariidaeCaloptilia cuculipennella
stemvagrantEriococcidaePseudochermes fraxini
leafminerGracillariidaeGracillaria syringella
leafminerNepticulidaeEtainia obtusa
leafminerYponomeutidaePrays fraxinella
leafvagrantEriophyidaeTegonotus collaris


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot: discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


Last modified 20.ix.2022