manna ash

synonym: Fraxinus rotundifolia Lam.; Ornus europaeus

organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite
leaf gall Eriophyidae Tegolophus califraxini
fruit gall rarely Curculionidae Lignyodes bischoffi
fruit borer larva Curculionidae Lignyodes suturatus
leaf vagrant Psyllidae Psyllopsis fraxinicola
fruit gall Cecidomyiidae Contarinia marchali
flower gall Eriophyidae Aceria fraxinivora
leaf bud gall summer generation Psyllidae Psyllopsis repens
leaf down Erysiphales Erysiphe syringae
leaf down Erysiphales Phyllactinia fraxini
leaf gall Cecidomyiidae Dasineura acrophila
leaf gall Cecidomyiidae Dasineura fraxini
leaf gall Cecidomyiidae Trigonodiplosis fraxini
leaf gall Eriophyidae Aceria fraxinicola
leaf gall Eriophyidae Aculus epiphyllus
leaf gall Eriophyidae Aculus fraxini
leaf gall Psyllidae Psyllopsis discrepans
leaf gall Psyllidae Psyllopsis fraxini
leaf gall Psyllidae Psyllopsis meliphila
leaf gall spring generation Psyllidae Psyllopsis repens
leaf miner Gracillariidae Caloptilia cuculipennella
stem vagrant Eriococcidae Pseudochermes fraxini
leaf miner Gracillariidae Gracillaria syringella
leaf miner Nepticulidae Etainia obtusa
leaf miner Yponomeutidae Prays fraxinella
leaf vagrant Eriophyidae Tegonotus collaris


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


mod 19.ix.2019