Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

genus Ligustrum

organparasitic modestagenotetaxonomic groupparasite
leafleaf spotMycosphaerellaceaeSeptoria protearum
leaffilmEnglerulaceaeSarcinella pulchra
stemkankerNectriaceaeThyronectria coryli
leafleaf spotMycosphaerellaceaeRamularia ligustrina
leafleaf spotGlomerellaceaeColletotrichum gloeosporioides
leafvagrantadultCurculionidaePolydrusus bardus
stemborerCossidaeZeuzera pyrina
predatorMiridaeHeterotoma planicornis
leafpredatorMiridaeDeraeocoris flavilinea
leafvagrantMiridaeClosterotomus reuteri
fruitvagrantLygaeidaeKleidocerys resedae
predatorAnthocoridaeOrius minutus
predatorMiridaeCampyloneura virgula
predatorMiridaeDeraeocoris olivaceus
leafvagrantMiridaeOrthotylus viridinervis
leafvagrantMiridaePinalitus cervinus
leafvagrantGeometridaeAscotis fortunata
leafvagrantPentatomidaeHalyomorpha halys
rootvagrantlarvaCurculionidaeOtiorhynchus aurifer
rootvagrantlarvaCurculionidaeOtiorhynchus tenebricosus
leafvagrantadultCurculionidaeOtiorhynchus meridionalis
leafvagrantadultCurculionidaeOtiorhynchus apenninus
leafvagrantadultCurculionidaeOtiorhynchus aurifer
leafvagrantadultCurculionidaeOtiorhynchus dieckmanni
leafvagrantadultCurculionidaeOtiorhynchus crataegi
leafminerYponomeutidaePrays oleae
stemborerCurculionidaePhloeotribus scarabaeoides
leafscaleAleyrodidaeSiphoninus phillyreae
rootvagrantCurculionidaeOtiorhynchus tenebricosus
leafvagrantNoctuidaeLithophane socia
scaleDiaspididaeHemiberlesia rapax
leafscaleDiaspididaeAspidiotus nerii
leafvagrantNoctuidaeEugraphe sigma
leafvagrantErebidaeHyphantria cunea
leafvagrantNoctuidaeNoctua fimbriata
leafvagrantNoctuidaePolia nebulosa
leafvagrantdoubtfulEuteliidaeEutelia adulatrix
leafvagrantNoctuidaeAgrochola litura
leafvagrantNoctuidaeAsteroscopus sphinx
leafvagrantNoctuidaeAcronicta rumicis
leafvagrantNoctuidaeAmphipyra pyramidea
leafvagrantNoctuidaeAmphipyra perflua
leafvagrantNoctuidaePolyphaenis sericata
leafvagrantNoctuidaePhlogophora meticulosa
leafvagrantrarelyTortricidaeTortrix viridana
leafvagrantNoctuidaeCraniophora ligustri
leafvagrantNoctuidaeAcronicta auricoma
leafvagrantErebidaePericallia matronula
leafvagrantGeometridaeAcasis viretata
leafvagrantGeometridaeEctropis crepuscularia
leafvagrantGeometridaeGnophos furvata
leafvagrantLasiocampidaeLasiocampa quercus
leafhiddendoubtfulCrambidaeAnania coronata
leafvagrantGeometridaeEnnomos fuscantaria
leafvagrantGeometridaeColotois pennaria
leafvagrantGeometridaeAngerona prunaria
leafvagrantGeometridaeErannis defoliaria
leafvagrantGeometridaeAgriopis aurantiaria
leafvagrantGeometridaeAgriopis bajaria
leafvagrantGeometridaeEctropis crepuscularia
leafvagrantGeometridaeMenophra abruptaria
leafvagrantGeometridaePeribatodes rhomboidaria
leafvagrantGeometridaeOperophtera brumata
leafvagrantGeometridaeTrichopteryx polycommata
leafvagrantNymphalidaeEuphydryas maturna
leafvagrantGeometridaeApeira syringaria
leafvagrantGeometridaeAlsophila aescularia
leafvagrantGeometridaeScopula nigropunctata
leafvagrantGeometridaeScopula imitaria
leafvagrantNoctuidaeLithophane semibrunnea
leafvagrantGeometridaePeribatodes ilicaria
leafvagrantLycaenidaeCelastrina argiolus
leafvagrantSphingidaeSphinx ligustri
leafvagrantSphingidaeAcherontia atropos
stemborerCurculionidaeHylesinus toranio
stemborerBuprestidaeAgrilus convexicollis
leafvagrantCicadellidaeIgutettix oculatus
flowervagrantyounger larvaAdelidaeAdela croesella
leafvagrantadultCicadellidaeFieberiella bohemica
leafvagrantCicadellidaeFieberiella florii
leafvagrantCicadellidaeFieberiella septentrionalis
leafvagrantCicadellidaeHishimonus hamatus
leafscaleAleyrodidaeDialeurodes citri
leafvagrantadultCurculionidaeOtiorhynchus smreczynskii
leafhiddenThripidaeThrips tabaci
stemvagrantFlatidaeMetcalfa pruinosa
leafvagrantTenthredinidaeTenthredo vespa
leafvagrantTenthredinidaeMacrophya punctumalbum
leafvagrantdoubtfulTenthredinidaeTenthredo temula
leafhiddenTortricidaeCelypha lacunana
leafhiddenChimabachidaeDasystoma salicella
leafhiddenCrambidaePalpita vitrealis
leafhiddenTortricidaeDitula angustiorana
leafhiddenTortricidaeClepsis consimilana
leafvagrantTingidaeStephanitis pyri
leafhiddenTortricidaeArchips rosana
leafhiddenTortricidaeExapate congelatella
leafhiddenTortricidaeLozotaenia forsterana
leafhiddenTortricidaeAdoxophyes orana
stemscaleDiaspididaeDiaspidiotus ostreaeformis
leafhiddenTortricidaeDoloploca punctulana
fruitborerTortricidaeEupoecilia ambiguella
fruitborerTortricidaeLobesia botrana
fruitborerTortricidaePseudargyrotoza conwagana
leafhiddenTortricidaeCacoecimorpha pronubana
leaf budvagrantEriophyidaeAceria ligustri
stemscaleDiaspididaeLepidosaphes ulmi
leafscaleDiaspididaeAspidiotus nerii
leafscaleCoccidaeLichtensia viburni
systemicscaleDiaspididaeParlatoria oleae
systemicscaleDiaspididaeParlatoria pergandii
leafvagrantThripidaeDendrothrips ornatus
leafvagrantsummer generationAphididaeAphis fabae
flowergallCecidomyiidaePlacochela nigripes
leaf budgallEriophyidaeAceria loewi
leafdownErysiphalesErysiphe syringae
leafdownErysiphalesErysiphe syringae-japonicae
leafdownErysiphalesPhyllactinia fraxini
leafleaf spotCapnodialesThedgonia ligustrina
leafgallspring generationrarelyAphididaeProciphilus bumeliae
leafgallAphididaeMyzus ligustri
leafminerColeophoridaeColeophora siccifolia
leafminerGracillariidaeCaloptilia cuculipennella
leafminerGracillariidaeGracillaria syringella
leafpustuleaeciaPuccinialesPuccinia isiacae
leafvagrantEriophyidaeShevtchenkella ligustri
leafvagrantEriophyidaeAculus ligustri
stemgallDiaspididaeChionaspis salicis
rootgallMeloidogynidaeMeloidogyne ardenensis
rootgallMeloidogynidaeMeloidogyne hapla
inquilineCecidomyiidaeTrotteria ligustri
stemscaleCoccidaeParthenolecanium corni
stemscaleAsterolecaniidaePlanchonia arabidis

Organ

the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.

PARASITIC MODE

borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot: discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.

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IMPORTANT

The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.

 

Last modified 24.ix.2022