Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

genus Linaria

organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite
leaf leaf spot Pleosporaceae Alternaria linariae
leaf leaf spot Didymellaceae Ascochyta linariae
leaf leaf spot Phyllostictaceae Phyllosticta linariae
leaf leaf spot Mycosphaerellaceae Septoria lapadensis
leaf leaf spot Pleosporales Mycocentrospora linariae
leaf leaf spot Capnodiales Ramularia linariae
leaf leaf spot Gnomoniaceae Diplodina euphrasiae
leaf vagrant Miridae Capsodes flavomarginatus
leaf vagrant Miridae Piezocranum simulans
fruit vagrant Lygaeidae Spilostethus saxatilis
leaf down Erysiphales Leveillula taurica
root vagrant Cixiidae Hyalesthes obsoletus
flower vagrant doubtful Noctuidae Omphalophana serrata
flower vagrant doubtful Noctuidae Omphalophana antirrhinii
fruit vagrant doubtful Pieridae Euchloe charlonia
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Calophasia almoravida
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Calophasia opalina
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Calophasia hamifera
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Calophasia platyptera
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Pyrrhia umbra
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Charanyca ferruginea
flower vagrant Noctuidae Heliothis viriplaca
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Calophasia lunula
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Chrysodeixis chalcites
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Thysanoplusia orichalcea
flower borer Geometridae Eupithecia laquaearia
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Helicoverpa armigera
leaf vagrant Geometridae Elophos dilucidaria
leaf vagrant Geometridae Ematurga atomaria
flower vagrant Geometridae Eupithecia centaureata
leaf vagrant Erebidae Coscinia cribraria
flower vagrant Geometridae Eupithecia absinthiata
leaf vagrant Geometridae Scopula asellaria
leaf vagrant Geometridae Menophra abruptaria
leaf vagrant Nymphalidae Melitaea cinxia
leaf vagrant Nymphalidae Melitaea didyma
flower borer Geometridae Eupithecia linariata
flower vagrant Geometridae Gymnoscelis rufifasciata
leaf vagrant Nymphalidae Melitaea athalia
leaf vagrant Nymphalidae Melitaea deione
leaf vagrant Geometridae Scopula nigropunctata
leaf vagrant Sphingidae Hippotion celerio
leaf leaf spot Capnodiales Septoria cymbalariae
unknown unknown Curculionidae Rhinusa depressa
unknown unknown Curculionidae Rhinusa griseohirta
unknown unknown Curculionidae Rhinusa incana
unknown unknown Curculionidae Rhinusa littorea
unknown unknown Curculionidae Rhinusa rara
flower hidden Thripidae Taeniothrips zurstrasseni
unknown unknown Thripidae Thrips linariae
flower hidden Thripidae Thrips flavus
flower borer Kateretidae Brachypterolus antirrhini
flower borer Kateretidae Brachypterolus linariae
leaf vagrant Chrysomelidae Chrysolina bankii
flower borer Kateretidae Brachypterolus pulicarius
leaf vagrant Chrysomelidae Chrysolina oceanoripensis
leaf vagrant Chrysomelidae Chrysolina mactata
leaf vagrant doubtful Chrysomelidae Chrysolina sturmi
leaf vagrant Chrysomelidae Chrysolina sanguinolenta
leaf vagrant Chrysomelidae Chrysolina kuesteri
leaf vagrant Chrysomelidae Chrysolina gypsophilae
leaf vagrant Chrysomelidae Chrysolina lucidicollis
leaf vagrant Chrysomelidae Chrysolina variolosa
leaf vagrant Chrysomelidae Chrysolina latecincta
leaf vagrant Chrysomelidae Chrysolina rossia
stem borer Agromyzidae Napomyza inquilina
leaf vagrant Tenthredinidae Athalia cordata
flower borer Pterophoridae Stenoptilia aridus
leaf miner Crambidae Antigastra catalaunalis
flower hidden Thripidae Frankliniella intonsa
leaf miner younger larva Tortricidae Cnephasia asseclana
leaf hidden older larva Tortricidae Cnephasia asseclana
leaf miner younger larva Tortricidae Cnephasia asseclana
leaf miner younger larva Tortricidae Cnephasia stephensiana
leaf hidden older larva Tortricidae Cnephasia stephensiana
leaf hidden older larva Tortricidae Cnephasia asseclana
leaf hidden Tortricidae Cnephasia incertana
leaf miner younger larva Tortricidae Cnephasia asseclana
leaf miner younger larva Tortricidae Cnephasia stephensiana
leaf hidden older larva Tortricidae Cnephasia stephensiana
leaf hidden older larva Tortricidae Cnephasia asseclana
leaf hidden Tortricidae Cnephasia incertana
fruit borer Tortricidae Falseuncaria ruficiliana
flower borer Tortricidae Falseuncaria degreyana
unknown unknown doubtful Pterophoridae Stenoptilia gallobritannidactyla
unknown unknown Pterophoridae Stenoptilia mariaeluisae
unknown unknown Pterophoridae Stenoptilia grisescens
flower borer Pterophoridae Stenoptilia bipunctidactyla
flower borer Pterophoridae Stenoptilia aridus
flower borer Pterophoridae Stenoptilodes taprobanes
root collar borer Cosmopterigidae Eteobalea intermediella
stem gall Curculionidae Mecinus barbarus
fruit borer larva Curculionidae Rhinusa melas
unknown borer larva Curculionidae Mecinus kaemmereri
stem gall larva Curculionidae Mecinus aubei
unknown gall larva Curculionidae Mecinus tavaresi
stem gall Curculionidae Mecinus dorsalis
stem gall larva Curculionidae Mecinus janthinus
leaf down Erysiphales Golovinomyces bolayi
stem gall Curculionidae Rhinusa herbarum
leaf miner Agromyzidae Chromatomyia horticola
stem vagrant Ortheziidae Orthezia urticae
stem gall Curculionidae Mecinus barbarus
flower vagrant Aphididae Myzus linariae
stem miner Agromyzidae Ophiomyia vitiosa
stem borer Agromyzidae Napomyza hirticornis
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Myzus persicae
leaf vagrant Aphididae Aphis gossypii
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Aphis fabae
systemic borer Anguinidae Ditylenchus dipsaci
fruit gall Curculionidae Rhinusa antirrhini
fruit gall Curculionidae Rhinusa neta
flower down Peronosporales Peronospora corollae
flower gall Curculionidae Rhinusa florum
leaf bud gall Cecidomyiidae Diodaulus linariae
leaf down Erysiphales Golovinomyces orontii
leaf down Erysiphales Leveillula linariae
leaf down doubtful Erysiphales Podosphaera phtheirospermi
leaf down Peronosporales Peronospora antirrhini
leaf down Peronosporales Peronospora flava
leaf down Peronosporales Peronospora linariae
leaf down Peronosporales Peronospora linariae-genistifoliae
leaf leaf spot Entylomatales Entyloma linariae
leaf gall Ustilaginales Melanotaenium cingens
leaf miner Agromyzidae Liriomyza bryoniae
leaf miner Agromyzidae Liriomyza strigata
leaf miner Agromyzidae Liriomyza trifolii
leaf miner Agromyzidae Liriomyza xanthocera
leaf miner Chrysomelidae Apteropeda orbiculata
leaf miner Chrysomelidae Apteropeda splendida
leaf miner Psychidae Apterona helicoidella
leaf miner Tortricidae Cnephasia lineata
leaf pustule Chytridiales Synchytrium aureum
leaf pustule aecia Pucciniales Puccinia isiacae
leaf pustule uredinia telia Pucciniales Puccinia antirrhini
stem gall Asterolecaniidae Planchonia arabidis
stem gall Curculionidae Rhinusa brondelii
stem gall Curculionidae Rhinusa pilosa
stem gall Curculionidae Mecinus heydeni
stem gall Curculionidae Mecinus laeviceps
stem gall Curculionidae Mecinus peterharrisi
stem predator Curculionidae Rhinusa eversmanni
root collar gall Cosmopterigidae Eteobalea serratella
root collar gall Ustilaginales Melanotaenium hypogaeum
root gall Curculionidae Rhinusa linariae
root gall Meloidogynidae Meloidogyne hapla
root predator Curculionidae Rhinusa collina
unknown unknown Curculionidae Mecinus bulgaricus
unknown unknown Curculionidae Mecinus raphaelis
leaf vagrant Aphididae Myzus cymbalariae
root collar vagrant Aphididae Brachycaudus linariae
stem vagrant Aphididae Dysaphis gallica


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot: discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


Last modified 19.xi.2022