Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Linaria vulgaris

common toad-flax

organparasitic modestagenotetaxonomic groupparasite
leafleaf spotPleosporalesMycocentrospora linariae
leafleaf spotCapnodialesRamularia linariae
leafleaf spotGnomoniaceaeDiplodina euphrasiae
leafvagrantMiridaePiezocranum simulans
fruitvagrantLygaeidaeSpilostethus saxatilis
leafvagrantNoctuidaeCalophasia almoravida
leafvagrantNoctuidaeCalophasia lunula
leafvagrantNoctuidaePyrrhia umbra
leafvagrantNoctuidaeCharanyca ferruginea
leafminerCrambidaeAntigastra catalaunalis
leafvagrantGeometridaeEmaturga atomaria
flowervagrantGeometridaeEupithecia absinthiata
leafvagrantGeometridaeMenophra abruptaria
leafvagrantNymphalidaeMelitaea cinxia
leafvagrantNymphalidaeMelitaea didyma
flowerborerGeometridaeEupithecia linariata
flowervagrantGeometridaeGymnoscelis rufifasciata
leafvagrantGeometridaeScopula nigropunctata
flowergallCurculionidaeRhinusa florum
flowerhiddenThripidaeTaeniothrips zurstrasseni
unknownunknownThripidaeThrips linariae
flowerborerKateretidaeBrachypterolus pulicarius
leafvagrantdoubtfulChrysomelidaeChrysolina sturmi
leafvagrantChrysomelidaeChrysolina sanguinolenta
leafvagrantChrysomelidaeChrysolina gypsophilae
leafvagrantChrysomelidaeChrysolina kuesteri
stemborerAgromyzidaeNapomyza inquilina
flowerhiddenThripidaeFrankliniella intonsa
fruitborerTortricidaeFalseuncaria ruficiliana
flowerborerTortricidaeFalseuncaria degreyana
root collargallCosmopterigidaeEteobalea serratella
root collarborerCosmopterigidaeEteobalea intermediella
stemgalllarvaCurculionidaeMecinus janthinus
fruitborerlarvaCurculionidaeRhinusa melas
stemgallCurculionidaeRhinusa herbarum
leafminerAgromyzidaeChromatomyia horticola
stemvagrantOrtheziidaeOrthezia urticae
rootpredatorCurculionidaeRhinusa collina
stemminerAgromyzidaeOphiomyia vitiosa
fruitgallCurculionidaeRhinusa antirrhini
fruitgallCurculionidaeRhinusa neta
flowerdownPeronosporalesPeronospora corollae
leaf budgallCecidomyiidaeDiodaulus linariae
leafdownErysiphalesGolovinomyces orontii
leafdownErysiphalesLeveillula linariae
leafdownPeronosporalesPeronospora flava
leafleaf spotEntylomatalesEntyloma linariae
leafgallUstilaginalesMelanotaenium cingens
leafminerPsychidaeApterona helicoidella
leafpustuleChytridialesSynchytrium aureum
stemgallCurculionidaeMecinus heydeni
stemgallCurculionidaeRhinusa pilosa
rootgallCurculionidaeRhinusa linariae
root collarvagrantAphididaeBrachycaudus linariae


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot: discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


Last modified 9.viii.2022