Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

genus Verbena

organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite
unknown unknown Curculionidae Pseudomeira grenierii
unknown unknown Curculionidae Pseudomeira grenierii
flower hidden Thripidae Thrips vulgatissimus
stem scale Coccidae Parthenolecanium corni
root film Ceratocystidaceae Berkeleyomyces basicola
root film Ceratobasidiaceae Rhizoctonia solani
stem film Peronosporaceae Phytophthora nicotianae
leaf leaf spot Didymellaceae Ascochyta verbenae
leaf leaf spot Phyllostictaceae Phyllosticta verbenae
leaf leaf spot Mycosphaerellaceae Septoria verbenae
leaf leaf spot Pleosporales Mycocentrospora acerina
leaf vagrant Lygaeidae Platyplax inermis
leaf vagrant Pentatomidae Stagonomus bipunctatus
leaf vagrant Pentatomidae Derula delagrangei
leaf vagrant Pentatomidae Derula flavoguttata
leaf vagrant Lygaeidae Panaorus adspersus
stem scale Pseudococcidae Pseudococcus longispinus
leaf miner younger larva Tortricidae Cnephasia asseclana
leaf hidden older larva Tortricidae Cnephasia asseclana
leaf hidden Tortricidae Cnephasia incertana
leaf vagrant Eriophyidae Acaralox bognari
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Myzus persicae
leaf vagrant Aphididae Aphis mamonthovae
leaf down Erysiphales Erysiphe verbenicola
leaf down Erysiphales Golovinomyces monardae
leaf down Erysiphales Golovinomyces orontii
leaf down Erysiphales Golovinomyces verbenae
leaf down Erysiphales Podosphaera xanthii
leaf down Peronosporales Peronospora verbenae
leaf miner Agromyzidae Liriomyza bryoniae
leaf miner Agromyzidae Liriomyza strigata
leaf miner Agromyzidae Liriomyza trifolii
leaf miner Ephydridae Hydrellia griseola
leaf pustule uredinia telia Pucciniales Cronartium flaccidum
root gall Meloidogynidae Meloidogyne hapla


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot: discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


Last modified 8.i.2024