Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

genus Beta

organparasitic modestagenotetaxonomic groupparasite
leafvagrantCicadellidaeCirculifer tenellus
leafvagrantCicadellidaeCirculifer haematoceps
leafvagrantCicadellidaeEmpoasca pteridis
leafvagrantCicadellidaeEupteryx atropunctata
leafvagrantCixiidaePentastiridius leporinus
leafvagrantCicadellidaeZyginidia sohrab
unknownunknownCurculionidaeMelaleucus spoliatus
root collarvagrantCurculionidaeOmias rotundatus
unknownunknownCurculionidaeConorhynchus mendicus
stemborerCurculionidaeLixus incanescens
unknownunknownCurculionidaeLixus brevirostris
unknownunknownCurculionidaeLixus juncii
leafvagrantChrysomelidaeCassida nebulosa
leafvagrantChrysomelidaeCassida vittata
leafvagrantChrysomelidaeCassida nobilis
leafvagrantChrysomelidaeCassida seraphina
rootborerChrysomelidaeChaetocnema picipes
rootborerChrysomelidaeChaetocnema tibialis
rootborerChrysomelidaeChaetocnema breviuscula
leafhiddenCrambidaeLoxostege sticticalis
stemborerCurculionidaeCosmobaris scolopacea
leafgallTriozidaeHeterotrioza chenopodii
leafhiddenThripidaeThrips angusticeps
rootgallActinomycetalesStreptomyces scabies
rootgallErwinia herbicola
rootvagrantlarvaCurculionidaeAsproparthenis punctiventris
leafhiddenCrambidaeSpoladea recurvalis
rootscalePseudococcidaePhenacoccus tergrigorianae
leafhiddenCrambidaeAchyra nudalis
unknownunknownScythrididaeEretmocera medinella
leafvagrantTriozidaeBactericera nigricornis
flowerhiddenThripidaeFrankliniella intonsa
unknownunknownHemicycliophoridaeHemicycliophora conida
rootgalllarvaCurculionidaeBothynoderes declivis
rootgallCurculionidaeBothynoderes affinis
stemborerlarvaCurculionidaeLixus subtilis
stemborerlarvaCurculionidaeLixus scabricollis
leafscaleAleyrodidaeAleurodicus dispersus
rootvagrantAphididaePemphigus fuscicornis
fruitvagrantColeophoridaeColeophora adspersella
leafvagrantAphididaeAphis gossypii
leafvagrantsummer generationAphididaeAphis fabae solanella
rootvagrantAphididaeRhopalosiphoninus latysiphon
leafdownErysiphalesErysiphe betae
leafdownErysiphalesLeveillula cylindrospora
leafdownPeronosporalesPeronospora schachtii
leafleaf spotCapnodialesRamularia beticola
leafgallrarelyAphididaeHayhurstia atriplicis
leafgallAphididaeParapiesma quadratum
leafgallBlastocladialesPhysoderma leproides
leafgallMeloidogynidaeMeloidogyne artiellia
leafminerAgromyzidaeLiriomyza bryoniae
leafminerAgromyzidaeLiriomyza huidobrensis
leafminerAgromyzidaeLiriomyza strigata
leafminerAgromyzidaeLiriomyza trifolii
leafminerAgromyzidaeAmauromyza flavifrons
leafminerAnthomyiidaePegomya betae
leafminerAnthomyiidaePegomya cunicularia
leafminerAnthomyiidaePegomya hyoscyami
leafminerColeophoridaeColeophora crepidinella
leafminerCurculionidaePseudophytobius acalloides
leafminerDrosophilidaeScaptomyza graminum
leafminerEphydridaeClanoneurum cimiciforme
leafminerEphydridaePsilopa leucostoma
leafminerGelechiidaeScrobipalpa atriplicella
leafminerGelechiidaeScrobipalpa nitentella
leafminerGelechiidaeScrobipalpa ocellatella
leafpustuleaeciaPuccinialesPuccinia isiacae
leafpustuleaecia uredinia teliaPuccinialesUromyces beticola
leafvagrantsummer generationAphididaeAphis fabae
leafvagrantsummer generationAphididaeAphis fabae fabae
stemgallRhizobialesAgrobacterium tumefaciens
root collargallActinomycetalesRhodococcus fascians
rootborerPratylenchidaePratylenchus pratensis
rootgallHeteroderidaeHeterodera schachtii
rootgallHeteroderidaeHeterodera trifolii
rootgallLongidoridaeParalongidorus maximus
rootgallMeloidogynidaeMeloidogyne hapla
rootgallMeloidogynidaeMeloidogyne naasi
rootvagrantsummer generationAphididaeSmynthurodes betae
leafvagrantsummer generationAphididaeMyzus persicae
leafvagrantAphididaeMacrosiphum euphorbiae
leafvagrantAphididaeAulacorthum solani
rootvagrantsummer generationAphididaeRhopalosiphoninus staphyleae tulipaellus

Organ

the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.

PARASITIC MODE

borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.

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IMPORTANT

The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.

 

Last modified 8.ii.2021