Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Atriplex halimus

shrubby orache

organparasitic modestagenotetaxonomic groupparasite
predatorTorymidaeTorymus phillyreae
predatorTorymidaeTorymus halimi
predatorEulophidaeNeochrysocharis violacea
predatorEupelmidaeEupelmus muellneri
leafvagrantMiridaePolymerus cognatus
leafvagrantMiridaeEurystylus bellevoyei
leafvagrantMiridaeAtomoscelis onusta
leafvagrantPiesmatidaeParapiesma atripicis
leafvagrantPiesmatidaeParapiesma rotundatum
leafvagrantMiridaeOrthotylus flavosparsus
leafvagrantMiridaeOrthotylus divisus
leafvagrantMiridaeAtomoscelis galvagnii
flowergallCecidomyiidaeStefaniella skuhravae
leafvagrantErebidaeOrgyia dubia
leafvagrantNoctuidaeCaradrina casearia
rootvagrantNoctuidaeEuxoa canariensis
leafvagrantNoctuidaeHeliothis nubigera
leafvagrantNoctuidaeSpodoptera littoralis
leafvagrantNoctuidaeAnarta trifolii
leafvagrantLasiocampidaeLasiocampa serrula
leafvagrantdoubtfulGeometridaeScopula decolor
leafminerChrysomelidaeMonoxia obesula
unknownunknownCurculionidaeLixus brevirostris
stemborerCurculionidaeCosmobaris scolopacea
leafvagrantChrysomelidaeCassida vittata
rootborerChrysomelidaeChaetocnema tibialis
unknownunknownChrysomelidaePsylliodes saulcyi
rootborerChrysomelidaeChaetocnema breviuscula
leafgallTriozidaeHeterotrioza sahlbergi
leafvagrantTriozidaeHeterotrioza concii
leafhiddenGelechiidaeScrobipalpa niveifacies
leafvagrantPterophoridaeAgdistis heydeni
flowerhiddenPyralidaeGymnancyla sfakesella
flowerhiddenPyralidaeGymnancyla hornigii
unknownunknownScythrididaeEretmocera medinella
leafhiddenScythrididaeScythris inertella
stemborerlarvaCurculionidaeLixus rubicundus
stemscaleCoccidaeSaissetia oleae
stemscaleDiaspididaeHemiberlesia laciniata
fruitvagrantColeophoridaeColeophora luciennella
fruitvagrantColeophoridaeColeophora bazae
stemgallColeophoridaeColeophora serinipennella
fruitvagrantColeophoridaeColeophora gaviaepennella
flowergallEriophyidaeAceria heimi
leafdownErysiphalesLeveillula cylindrospora
leafdownPeronosporalesPeronospora minor
leafgallEriophyidaeAceria brevipes
leafminerColeophoridaeColeophora picardella
leafminerGelechiidaeChrysoesthia atriplicella
leafminerGelechiidaeChrysoesthia gaditella
leafminerGelechiidaeScrobipalpa halymella
leafminerGelechiidaeScrobipalpa instabilella
stemgallCecidomyiidaeAsphondylia punica
stemgallCecidomyiidaeStefaniella atriplicis
stemgallCecidomyiidaeStefaniella brevipalpis
stemgallCecidomyiidaeStefaniella trinacriae
stemgallGelechiidaeScrobipalpa obsoletella
leafgallAphididaeHayhurstia atriplicis
leafvagrantsummer generationAphididaeMyzus persicae
leafgallCecidomyiidaePrimofavilla aegyptiaca
fruitvagrantColeophoridaeColeophora auroguttella


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot: discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


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