Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Chenopodium

Chenopodium goosefoot

Incl. Blitum, Chenopodiastrum, Lipandra.

(For a dichotomous table for galls on Chenopodium by Hans Roskam click here)

Dichotomous table for leafminers

1a mine completely within a leaf => 2

1b mine partly in petiole or stem => 21

1c galls, etc => Tables for all parasites per species

2a blotch mine, no trace of an initial corridor => 3

2b corridor, widening into a blotch => 11

2c corridor throughout => 16

2d fleck mine => 18

2e mine of indefinite shape, small (larvae with legs and feet; older larvae free, among spun leaves) => 19

3a larva with distinct head and feet => 4

3b larva a maggot; at start of the initial mine (larvae my change mines) a group of oval egg shells: Pegomya-species (nb: the larvae of P. conformis, exilis and interruptella are still undescribed) => 7

4a larva with prolegs (moth larva) => 5

4b no prolegs (Mediterranean beetle larva): Monoxia obesula

5a mine contains almost no frass; larva mines from an exterior silken tube: Scrobipalpa atriplicella

5b mine contains frass; larva lives within the mine => 6

6a mine brownish, often contracted by spinning into an indistinct tent; frass fine; elder larvae free in leaf cone: Calybites phasianipennella

6b mine white, flat; frass in black or green lumps or arcs; larvae remain in the mine until pupation => 7

7a blotch mine; frass in a big lump => 8

7b corridor mine, densely, intestine-like coiled; frass in broad green fans: Chrysoesthia drurella

8a lowland species: Chrysoesthia sexguttella

8b mountain species: Chrysoesthia verrucosa

9a larva: lowest of the mandibular teeth exceptionally strong: Pegomya cunicularia

9b lowest tooth not that oversized => 10

10a angle between terminal and subterminal mandibular teeth almost right:: Pegomya betae

10b this angle very sharp: Pegomya hyoscyami

11a mine brownish, often contracted by spinning into an indistinct tent; frass fine-grained; older larva lives free in a rolled leaf margin: Calybites phasianipennella

11b mine white or yellowish-green => 12

12a larva with distinct head and feet; mine full deep: Scrobipalpa nitentella

12b larva a maggot; mine at least partly under- or lower-surface => 13

13a primary feeding lines distinct; frass in big lump => 8

13b no primary feeding lines visible; frass in fine grains => 14

14a irregular narrow corridor. rather abruptly widening ito a small blotch; at start of the mine at leaf lower-surface an egg shell (may fall off): Psilopa leucostoma

14b initial corridor relatively short and wide, merging into a large blotch; no egg shell => 15

15a puparium in the leaf (sometimes in a small mine of its own); mine with broad offshoots where greenish clouds of frass are deposited (sometimes only visible after removal of upper epidermis): Scaptomyza graminum

15b larva leaves the mine prior to pupation; frass sparse, in fine black grains: Amauromyza flavivfons

16a corridor full depth, strongly coiled, “intestine-like”; much green frass in arcs; larvae with distinct feet and head: Chrysoesthia drurella

16b corridor upper- or lower-surface, not coiled; grass in black grains or strings; larva a maggot => 17

17a puparium in the mine (usually in an lower-surface pupal chamber); frass in isolated grains: Chromatomyia horticola

17b larvae pupates after having left the mine; frass in strings: Liriomyza bryoniae

18 In the inflorescence of Chenopodium and other Amaranthaceae, especially when growing near the coast, lives a number of Coleophora species that feed on the developing fruits. Their cases are so similar that identification is possible only after breeding. Generally, they do not mine the leaves. As far as the literature gives any information, the only species to be regarded as a leafminer is: Coleophora sternipennella

19a larva: pinacula colourless (the bases of the setae themselves are black) : Cnephasia incertana

19b pinacula black => 20

20a larva: behind/below the anus a chitinous comb: Cnephasia asseclana

20b anal comb absent: Cnephasia stephensiana

21a mine in stem or midrib with offshoots into the leaf => 22

21b mine starts in a leaf; from there the larve penetrates the stem : Amauromyza chenopodivora

22a larva with distinct head and feet: Scrobipalpa obsoletella

22b larva a maggot: Delia echinata

Not included in the key: Amauromyza karli; Coleophora versurella; Liriomyza trifolii; Tuta absoluta.

Tables for all parasites per species

Last modified 24.xi.2020