Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi


Dianthus pink, carnation

(For a dichotomous table for galls on Dianthus by Hans Roskam click here)

Dichotomous table for leafminers

1a the larva lives within the mine => 2

1b the larva mines from a transportable case, making fleck mines => 8

1c galls, etc => Tables for all parasites per species

2a larva also bores in the top of the stem, causing this part of the plant to wilt => 3

2b larva exclusively in a leaf => 5

3a larva a maggot, remaining in the mine till pupation; frass in green lumps: Delia echinata

3b larva with chitinised head, lives later free; mine without frass => 4

4a larva: prothoracic plate yellowish green with black spots: Cacoecimorpha pronubana

4b prothoracic plate black: Caryocolum vicinella

5a final part of the mine a corrridor or very slender blotch: Liriomyza dianthicola

5b final part of the mine a broad blotch => 6

6a frass powdery, in green clouds, mainly along the sides of the mine or in the end of short side branches: Scaptomyza graminum

6b frass not in green clouds => 7

7a mine almost full depth, mostly in the leaf basis; frass in discrete grains: Delia brunnescens

7b mine clearly upper-surface, whitish, without preference for a part of the leaf; frass in few, small black grains: Amauromyza flavifrons

8a rim of mouth forming a distinct flange: Coleophora dianthivora

8b flange weak of absent => 9

9a case with dark length lines => 10

9b no length lines visible: Coleophora adelogrammella

10a case rough: Coleophora riffelensis

10b case practically smooth: Coleophora musculella & nubivagella

Not included in the key: Botanophila fugax; Liriomyza trifolii.

Tables for all parasites per species

Last modified 16.iii.2020